ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ*
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ

Orchon-mongolei.JPG
ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ
ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷ ii, iii, iv
ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ 1081
ᠪᠥᠰᠡ** ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ
ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 2004  (28 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ)
* ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ᠃
** ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠢ United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ᠃

ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ 360 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠠᠯᠤᠰᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠰᠤᠨᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 28 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠠᠨᠳᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃


ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ II, III, IV ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ 1081 ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ-ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃


ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 8 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠷᠦᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ 25 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠶᠢᠳᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠲᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠯ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠬᠢᠳᠠᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠦᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 3 ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃


ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠶᠢᠳᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • 8 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠺᠦᠶᠢᠯᠢ ᠲᠧᠭᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠥᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠬᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ 1889-1893 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ᠃ 8 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ᠂ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠳᠤᠭᠠᠩ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ 50 ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ km ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃
  • ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨᠢᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤᠷᠤᠮ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠶᠢᠳᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃
  • ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ. ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠨᠢᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 1930-1940 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠲᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ. ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠩᠴᠢ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ᠂ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ 2600 ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠰᠠᠨ 13-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ
ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ᠃ ᠫᠠᠨᠨᠣᠷᠤᠮ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ