ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ (1844-1923) ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ
1683 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ

ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ, ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠣᠰᠮ᠃ دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه, Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye,«ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ») ᠭᠡᠵᠦ 1299 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 1922 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 623 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ, ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ 1923 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ (1299–1453)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠷᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠯᠢᠵᠢᠺ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Aᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠨ Ghazi ᠡᠮᠢᠷᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1300 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠢᠽᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ 10 Ghazi ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ᠬᠠᠨᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ Aᠨᠣᠲᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Ghazi ᠡᠮᠢᠷᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ (Osman ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ) ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠩᠨᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠠᠪᠢᠶᠠᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠳᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠭᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢ 4 ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ Tigris, Euphrates, ᠳᠤᠨᠠᠢ᠂ᠨᠢᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠤᠨ᠂ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ 4 ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠺᠠᠸᠬᠠᠰ᠂ Taurus, ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠲᠯᠠᠰ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ Sultan , I Osman ᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ , Byzantine ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠮᠡᠭ ᠷᠤ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯᠳᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ , Bursa ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ , ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃I ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ Balkans ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ Mediterranean ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Thessaloniki ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ 1387 ᠍ ᠳᠦ theVenetians ᠍ ᠰ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ 1389 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Kosovo ᠍ ᠦᠨ Battle ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ Europe ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ , ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠳᠦ Serbian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃1396 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Nicopolis ᠍ ᠦᠨ Battle , ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ Ages ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ large-scalecrusade ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ regarded ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ , ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Ottomans ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Balkans ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ , Constantinople ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ surrounding (ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ formerByzantine ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Byzantines ᠲᠦᠷᠢ relieved ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ 1402 ᠍ ᠳᠦ whenTimur Ankara ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ Anatolia ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ I Sultan Bayezid ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1430s ᠪᠠ 1450s ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ Murad IIbetween ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ recovered ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , Balkans ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ 1402 ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃I Bayezid ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ Turks ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ Bayezid ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 1413 ᠍ ᠷᠤ 1402 ᠍ ᠰ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠨᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ theInterregnum ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠬᠤ , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠧᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ whenMehmed ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ Mehmed ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠦ , 21 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ , 1453 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 29 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Constantinople ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠣᠴᠣ ᠠᠪᠢᠶᠠᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ , ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯ (1453–1683)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ , Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ 1566 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ , ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ : ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠨ ᠮᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ(1453–1566)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1453 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ II ᠮᠧᠬᠮᠧᠳ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ II ᠮᠧᠬᠮᠧᠳ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Gennadios ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ , ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ Byzantine ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ Loukas Notaras ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ "ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯᠲᠠ" ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Orthodox ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ Venetsian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Apulia ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ Otranto ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ᠂ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ , Kayser-i Rm ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ Mehmed II ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ , 1480-1481 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Turk ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ II ᠮᠧᠬᠮᠧᠳ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠺᠠᠶᠢᠽᠧᠷ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ II ᠮᠧᠬᠮᠧᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠷᠤᠮᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ 1479 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠫᠦ᠋ᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠲ᠋ᠷᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠷᠤ ᠴᠥᠮᠦᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ II ᠮᠧᠬᠮᠧᠳ ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1481 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 5 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ XV ᠪᠠ XVI ᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠮᠦᠷᠡᠴᠢ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠨᠢᠺᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠃ 1359 ᠣᠨ᠃
ᠹᠠᠦ᠋ᠰᠲᠠ ᠵᠣᠨᠷᠣ᠃ II ᠮᠧᠬᠮᠧᠳ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠢᠨᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠨ ; ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠷᠯᠣᠲ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠲᠦ Portuguese ᠪᠠ Mediterranean ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ Aegean , ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ Europe ᠪᠠ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠮᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Safavid Persia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Shah Ismail ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ SultanSelim. I Selim ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠷᠯᠣᠲ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ , Egypt ᠍ ᠳᠦ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

The Castle and City of Otranto and the surrounding areas in Apulia were held by the Turks during the Ottoman invasion of 1480–1481, as part of Mehmed II's ambition to conquer also the western capital of the former Roman Empire and consolidate his title of Kayser-i Rûm, i.e. Roman Emperor.
ᠮᠣᠬᠣᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ (1526) ᠪᠠ ᠣᠳᠲᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ᠃

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ , ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ Portuguese ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠰᠦᠷ ᠵᠢᠪᠬᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ Selim ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ .Suleiman (Selim ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ) 1521 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Belgrade ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ , Suleiman Hungary ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃(ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ , ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ).1526 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Mohcs ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠪ European ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ Vienna ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , 1529 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Vienna ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1532 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Nikola Jurii ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ,ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ Gns. ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ 97 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ , Gns ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ . Suleiman Vienna ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ Suleiman ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ Vienna ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1543 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ , Habsburg ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ Ferdinand ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ 1547 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Hungary ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠰᠮᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Suleiman , Transylvania , Wallachiaand ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ᠂ Moldavia , Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠷᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ Mesopotamia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ 1535 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Persian ᠍ ᠰ Baghdad ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Suleiman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ , ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ 15.000.000 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠥᠪ Mediterranean ᠍ ᠷᠤ Suleiman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ 1565 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Malta ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ Malta ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ summer-long ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 50.000 ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ 6.000 ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠮᠠᠯᠢᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠨᠢᠽᠣᠨ ᠪᠠ St.John ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ St.John ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠰᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ Maltese ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ 9 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Selim ᠪᠠ Suleiman ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ , Mediterranean ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃Suleiman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠩ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠷᠯᠣᠲ ᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠳᠮᠢᠷᠠᠯ Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠤᠨ Christian ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠣᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ 1543 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ Spain ᠍ ᠰ Algeria ᠪᠠ Tunis ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ Barbarossa ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ I Francis ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ France ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ Habsburg ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ , Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ France , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ , ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ,ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ France ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠳᠤ , Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Habsburg Austria ᠪᠠ Italy , Habsburg ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ France ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 16 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ , Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ , ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ᠂ Portugal ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ , ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ Persia , ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ 2 ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Austria ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠪᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ (1566–1683)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538 (painted 1866).
The successful Ottoman siege of Nice in 1543 was followed by the wintering in Toulon of the Ottoman fleet until 1544.
The Ottoman invasion of the Balearic Islands in 1558 and assaults on the port cities of the Spanish mainland led to the Battle of Djerba in 1560.

[[ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:Battle of Lepanto 1571.jpg|thumb|left|ᠯᠧᠫᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ᠃ 1571 ᠣᠨ

ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ Sultans ᠍ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ , Europe ᠍ ᠳᠦ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ 1683 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Vienna ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠣᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ European ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Aᠽᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠨᠣᠫᠣᠯᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1488 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Portuguese ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ 16 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ-Portuguese ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ , ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ Spanish ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠴᠢᠳᠬᠤᠯ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠣᠴᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Tatar ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠣᠯᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ Volga ᠪᠠ Caspian ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠷᠤ IV Ivan ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ II Selim ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ Sokollu Mehmed Pasha , Grand Vizier ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠥᠰᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡ , Astrakhan ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ , Don-Volga ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠯᠭᠦᠶᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠩ , ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ Empire Russia ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ Crimean Khanate ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠣᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃1571 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠺᠷᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ I Devlet Giray ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ Moᠰᠺᠸᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Molodi ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠺᠷᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ 17 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠮᠣᠰᠺᠸᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ Europe ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠷ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ Europe ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ Europe ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Spain ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠯᠢᠫ II ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ led ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ , Catholic ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ , Mediterranean ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Lepanto ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠷᠯᠣᠲ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠬᠦ Constantinople ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ , ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ galleasses ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 250 ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠹᠯᠣᠲ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ , ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ (ᠶᠠᠭ) ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ Venetian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ Grand Vizier "In capturing Cyprus from you. we have cut off one of your arms; in defeating our fleet you have merely shaved off our beard" : ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ 1573 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠭᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠬᠤ ᠢ Venice ᠍ ᠢ ᠢᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠠ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠹᠢᠼᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ [[ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:Battle of Mezokeresztes 1596.jpg|thumb|The Battle of Keresztes (1596) was part of the Long War (1593–1606) between the Ottoman and Habsburg empires, which ended with Ottoman victory, resulting in the Peace of Zsitvatorok in 1606.]]Lepanto ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠣᠷᠣᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠥᠬᠡ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , Habsburg ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Vienna Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ campaigning ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠷᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Constantinople ᠍ ᠰ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , pre-mechanized ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ : ᠮᠤᠬᠤᠷᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Habsburg ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Persia ᠍ ᠦᠨ Safavids , ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ , Austrians ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ : 2 ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Empire ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠭ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠧᠺᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠳᠤ Europeans ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤ conservatism ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Ottomans ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ European ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ Sipahi ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Habsburg Austria ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ equipped ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ Janissary ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠤᠶᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ (ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ) ᠣᠭᠲᠣ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠤᠶᠢᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠲᠡ , ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ , ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

Europeans ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠤᠳ (ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ) ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠨᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ (ᠬᠡᠲᠦ) ᠦᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ Ottomans ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ massed ᠶᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ proved –ᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ 17th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ 16th ᠍ ᠳᠦ Anatolia ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠨᠠᠷᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠫᠤᠤᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Jelali ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ brigandage ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Empire ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ 1600 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ 30.000.000 ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠢ , ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠮᠰᠠᠳᠠᠯ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , 17th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ , ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ Imperial Harem ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Sultanate ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ , ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ; "thwarted some while rewarding others" ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ "a woman of the utmost goodness. courage and wisdom" ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ Venetian Baylo Andrea Giritti ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ described ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ Valide Sultan , Nurbanu ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡ
The Ottoman army battling the Habsburgs in Slovenia during the Great Turkish War of 1662–1699.

1530s ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Hrrem Sultan ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃Mehmed IV ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ I Ibrahim ᠍ ᠦᠨ 1646 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ/ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠮᠠᠭ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , Imperial Harem ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠳᠦᠭᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠶᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ 1651 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ Ksem ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ , Ksem Sultan ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠷᠢ Turhan Hatice ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Empire ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ Kpr?l ᠍ ᠰ Grand Viziers ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ? ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ , ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ? Kpr?l ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 15 , 1656 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ Kpr?l Mehmed Pasha ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠦᠨ Valide Turhan Hatice ᠍ ᠰ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠯᠠᠴᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠰᠢᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮᠴᠢ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠴᠡ reasserted –ᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ Fazl Ahmed Kpr?l ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Kpr?l ? Vizierate 1676 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ Ottoman ᠍ ᠷᠤ ceding Podolia ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠠ Khotyn ᠪᠠ Kamianets-Podilskyi ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠴᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ , ᠤᠷᠳᠤ Ukraine ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠪᠠ Crete ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ 1669 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Transylvania ᠍ ᠳᠦ restored ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ renewed ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Renewed assertiveness ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1683-1687 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1683 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Kara Grand Vizier Pasha Vienna ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠨᠣᠴᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ , Vienna ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ Jan ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ Habsburg ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Holy League ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ War Great ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠍ ᠳᠦ Karlowitz ᠍ ᠦᠨ epochal Treaty ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ , see-sawing ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ , (ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ) ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ , ᠪᠠ Vienna ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ , Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ European ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠬᠤ , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ Hungary ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠡᠨᠡᠲᠢᠶᠠᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ forced ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Empire ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ European ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , expansionist ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ 2 Sultans : Zenta ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠲᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ undone ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ Mustafa II ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , Hungary ᠍ ᠳᠦ Habsburgs ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ 16956 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠥᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Murad IV ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ reign. ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ reasserted ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠠ Safavids ᠍ ᠰ Yerevan ᠪᠠ Baghdad ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Empire ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ (1683–1827)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

King Charles XII of Sweden fled to the Ottoman Empire following his defeat against the Russians at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. A guest of the Turks for nearly five years, he persuaded the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III to declare war on Russia, which resulted in the Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711 that ended with an Ottoman victory.

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ Empire ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ foethe ᠍ ᠦᠨ rising Russian ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ foethe Austrian Empireas ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ Austria ᠍ ᠷᠤ Balkans ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Egypt ᠪᠠ Algeria ᠰᠢᠭ (ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ) ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ , Empire ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ , (ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ) ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ Britain ᠪᠠ France ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ , ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , (ᠣᠷᠣᠰ) Russian ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠠ growing ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃(ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ) ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ , 1709 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Poltava ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ Sweden ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠷᠯ XII Russians ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Charles XII 17101711 ᠍ ᠦᠨ Pruth River Campaign ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , Russia ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ Sultan Ahmed III ᠍ ᠢ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Passarowitz ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Treaty ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 21 , 1718 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , Treaty ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ Europe ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Tulip ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ , Europe ᠍ ᠷᠤ Empire ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ Sultan Ahmed III ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯᠠᠯ named –ᠰᠠᠩ᠃

A Turkish hunting party with Ahmed III. Painting by Jean-Baptiste van Mour.

ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ European expansionism ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ Balkan ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Cultural ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ , ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Europe ᠍ ᠦᠨ Baroque ᠪᠠ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ influenced ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ , ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠰᠢᠯᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ Topkap ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ Ahmed III ᠍ ᠦᠨ Fountain ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ Flemish-French ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ Jean-Baptiste ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠡᠭᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ Mour ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ Tulip ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Catherine , 1725 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Peter ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ , Peter ᠡᠬᠡᠨᠡᠷ Czarina Catherine I ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ Russian Empire ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ Austria , Russia ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ , ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ Catherine I , 1739 ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 1735 ᠍ ᠰ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Belgrade ᠍ ᠦᠨ Treaty Russians ᠍ ᠳᠦ Azov ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠪᠠ Austria ᠍ ᠳᠦ "Little Walachia" ᠪᠠ Serbia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 18 , 1739 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ Belgrade ᠍ ᠦᠨ Treaty ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ , Austria ᠪᠠ Russia Great King Frederick ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ Prussians ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃(ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ) ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ , ᠪᠠ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ , ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Istanbul Technical University ᠰᠢᠭ (ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ) ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ including ᠍ ᠵ , ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠣᠷᠢᠨᠵᠢᠨ ᠯᠤᠤᠵᠢᠩ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠢ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠧᠺᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ Chinese ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ , ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Islamic ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ , ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ , ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃1734 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ Western-style ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ French ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ (ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ) ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ , Islamic clergy ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ theodicy ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 1754 ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ semi-secret ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ re-opened ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠷᠲᠡ , ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ C ᠍ ᠳᠦ Europe ᠍ ᠳᠦ Johannes Gutenberg ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ 53-year ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ , "the Devil's Invention" ᠰᠢᠭ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠮᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ 1493 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Spain ᠍ ᠦᠨ Sephardic Jews ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Constantinople ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ Gutenberg ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ 1440 , ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ 18th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ non-Muslims ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1726 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Ibrahim Muteferrika ᠲᠡᠷᠡ non-religious ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠯ Muteferrika ᠍ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , (ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ) ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ III Sultan Ahmed ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ , Pasha , Grand ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠴᠠᠰᠤ , ᠪᠠ Ibrahim ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ clergy Grand Vizier Nevehirli Damat ᠍ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠮᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

18th century Turkish guns with miquelet locks, circa 1750-1800.
ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ : ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ entrepreneurship ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠩᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠩ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ , Russia 1768 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ expansionistic ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯᠡᠩᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 1739 ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ , ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠨᠥᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ Bessarabia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ Ottoman-controlled ᠬᠣᠲᠠ Balta ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace.
ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ 1768-1774 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ Russo-Turkish ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃1774 ᠍ ᠦᠨ Kuchuk Kainraji ᠍ ᠦᠨ Treaty ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠷᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡ Moldavia ᠪᠠ Wallachia ᠍ ᠦᠨ Ottoman-controlled Rumanian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ Christian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ Russo-Turkish ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Russia ᠍ ᠢ Christian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠦᠰᠦᠭᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ 19 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ 18th ᠍ ᠰ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ Russian ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ 18th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ , Ottomans ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ , Russia ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ "Deli Petro" ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠷᠮᠡᠭ Russians ᠍ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠦᠲᠦᠨᠡᠬᠦ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ European ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ Selim III ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ Janissary ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠬᠠᠲᠠᠭᠤ ᠰᠣᠯᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ opposed –ᠰᠠᠨ᠃Selim ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 1826 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Janissary ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠷᠫᠤᠶᠢᠰ ᠢ ᠦᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠨᠥᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ , ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ Mahmud II ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠵᠢᠨ resolved ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Serbian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ Eastern Question ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Balkans ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠢᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠪ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ Serbia ᠍ ᠦᠨ Suzerainty ᠍ ᠢ 1830 ᠍ ᠳᠦ jure de ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃1821 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Greeks Sultan ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠭ Moldavia ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ Corinth ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ , Peloponnese ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠠᠬᠠᠯ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃mid-19th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ , Europeans ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ "sick man" Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Suzerain Moldavia ᠪᠠ Montenegro 1860s ᠪᠠ 1870s ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ jure ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ de ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ , Wallachia , Serbia ᠍ ᠦᠨ Principality ᠍ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ (1828–1908)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ Empire ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Russia ᠪᠠ , Britain , Netherlands , France ᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ European ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠬᠢᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ , 1853 Crimean ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ , Ottomans Russia ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ Sardinia ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ Kingdom ᠪᠠ , France , britain ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Mahmud II started the modernization of Turkey by paving the way for the Edict of Tanzimat in 1839 (implemented immediately after his death by his son Sultan Abdülmecid) which instituted European-style clothing, uniforms, weapons, architecture, education, legislation, banking, institutional organization, agricultural and industrial innovations, new technologies in transport and communications, and land reform.

Tanzimat ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ , homosexuality ᠍ ᠦᠨ decriminalisation , banking ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ , (ᠣᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃1856 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Hatt Hmayun ᠲᠡᠷᠡ (ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ) ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ Glhane ᠍ ᠦᠨ 1839 Hatt Serif ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ethnicity ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ , Tanzimat ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Tanzimat ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ educated ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ , Balkans ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ Turkey ᠍ ᠦᠨ Republic ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠ Mustafa Kemal Atatrk ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ Istanbul ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠤᠤᠳᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 1876 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Yeni Mosque. ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠱᠤᠤᠳᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠠᠨ Postahane-i Amire ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ Post ᠍ ᠦᠨ Ottoman Ministry ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1840. 23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Istanbul ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1901 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠴᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠱᠤᠤᠳᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Samuel Morse ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Sultan Abdlmecid ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Constantinople ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ Beylerbeyi Palace ᠍ ᠳᠦ , 1847 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠫᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠨᠲ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ , ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1847 9 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃1855 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Telegraph Administration ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1871 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Post ᠪᠠ Telegraph ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ , Telegraph Administration ᠪᠠ Post ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1881 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Istanbul ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ Yenicami ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ Postahane-i Amire ᠪᠠ Souk?e?me ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ Post ᠪᠠ Telegraph ᠍ ᠦᠨ Ministry ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1909 , 50 ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ Sirkeci ᠍ ᠦᠨ By?k Postane ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ 2 ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ 1856 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ; ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ Cairo-Alexandria ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠪᠠ ?zmir-Ayd?n ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠢ Oriental ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃reformist ᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 1876 ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Young Ottomans ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ? Kann Ess ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Constitution ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

The reign of Sultan Abdülmecid was marked by the implementation of the Tanzimat reforms; the Crimean War and first foreign debt of the Ottoman Empire in 1854 (the payments of which were completed by the Republic of Turkey a century later, in 1954);[1] and the Treaty of Paris (1856) which secured Ottoman control over the Balkan peninsula and the Black Sea basin until the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

Empire ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ Constitutional ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ , ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ Ottomanism ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Young Ottomans ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ , ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ (ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ) ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ educated ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ , ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ Empire ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃1876 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠯᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ , Murad V ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ deposed ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , However Murad ᠪᠣᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ Sultan Abdlaziz ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ heir-apparent , Abdlhamid II , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 23 , 1876 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ , ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ invited –ᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ 2 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ reconvene ᠍ ᠳᠦ forced ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ This Kann- ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃Christian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 1863 ᠍ ᠦᠨ Armenian ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ , ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Regulations ᠍ ᠦᠨ Code ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ Divan-approved ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ (ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ) Armenian intelligentsia ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ drafted ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ 150 ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ Assembly ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠬᠡᠨ formed ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ (ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ) Armenian National ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ Christian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ , ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠭᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠬᠦ , Muslim ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ , owing.1861 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ learning Arabic ᠪᠠ Islamic ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠣᠮᠯᠠᠯ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ hindered ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠣᠳᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ Muslim ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ , ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ 140.000 ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ Ottoman Christians ᠍ ᠳᠦ 94 ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ 571 ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠦ , Christians ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1911 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Constantinople ᠍ ᠦᠨ 654 ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ , 528 ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ Greeks. ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠺᠷ ᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠺᠷ ᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ

Crimean ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ (1853-1856) ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ European ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ long-running ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ Crimean Peninsula ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ Sea , ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ , Caucasus , ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ Anatolia ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠺᠠᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠦᠷᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠢ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ "modern" ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ wounded ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ British ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Mary Seacole ᠪᠠ Florence ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠭᠤᠤᠯᠳᠠᠢ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃Crimean ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ extensively ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ , Roger Fenton ᠪᠠ William Russell ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ : ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ documented ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Crimea ᠍ ᠰ Britain ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠳᠤᠲᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ informed ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ Crimean ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠠᠨ , ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1854 4 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ Crimean Tatars ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Tauride ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠳᠤ 300.000 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ Tatar ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ , Crimean Tatars ᠍ ᠳᠦ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠷᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 200.000 ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠭᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃Caucasian Wars ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠷᠤ , ᠶᠡᠬᠡ Circassians Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Caucasus ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃19 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ , Crete ᠪᠠ Crimea , Caucasus , Balkans ᠍ ᠰ Muslim ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ Turkey ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠯᠲᠡ , ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ Muhacir ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1922 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠳᠤ , Turkey ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠢ Russia ᠍ ᠰ Muslim ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Paris ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Treaty 18771878 ᠍ ᠦᠨ Russo-Turkish War ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ Balkan ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ , 19 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ , ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤᠨ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ imported ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

Punch cartoon from 17 June 1876. Russian Empire preparing to let slip the Balkan "Dogs of War" to attack the Ottoman Empire, while policeman John Bull (UK) warns Russia to take care. Supported by Russia, Serbia and Montenegro declared war on the Ottoman Empire the following day.
ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯᠴᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 20th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ 19 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠶᠡᠬᠡ Ottoman Turks ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ blame ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ : ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ , ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ successes ᠍ ᠭᠦᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ , ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ Ottoman ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1804 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Napoleonic ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠶᠦᠬᠦ , Ottoman ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ Serbian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ Balkans ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃1817 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ , ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠤ (ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ) ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ , Serbia ᠍ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ suzerainty ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠷᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1821 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ Hellenic ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ Independence ᠍ ᠦᠨ Greek ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ , 1829 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Porte ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ

Tanzimat ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ semi-independent ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Serbia ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ Principality ᠪᠠ Danubian Principalities ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃Moldavia ᠪᠠ Wallachia ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ United Principalities ᠪᠠ , Serbia ᠪᠠ Montenegro ᠍ ᠦᠨ (ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠲᠤ) ᠴᠢᠳᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ 1875 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , unilaterally Empire ᠍ ᠰ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1877-1878 ᠍ ᠦᠨ Russo-Turkish ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ , ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ 3 ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠸᠢᠷᠲᠤᠸᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ; ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ rebelling ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ Russo-Turkish ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠪᠧᠷᠯᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Maps of Ottoman Europe in 1453; 1699; 1699-1877; and 1878–1885.
Map of the Ottoman Empire in 1900,[2] with the names of the Ottoman provinces between 1878 and 1908.

Berlin ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ (13 June – 13 July 1878) Europe ᠍ ᠦᠨ (ᠮᠥᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ) ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ Powers ᠪᠠ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Balkan ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ Russia ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ Russo-Turkish War(1877-1878) ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠳᠤ , ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ , Balkans ᠍ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠵᠢᠬᠤ᠃ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠴᠠᠯᠧᠷ Otto von Bismarck , Congress ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ , Ottomans ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠦᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ , ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠦᠰᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ , Europe ᠍ ᠳᠦ Ottoman ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ Bulgaria ᠍ ᠢ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ; ᠣᠭᠴᠣᠮ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠳᠲᠡ Turks ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Macedonia ᠪᠠ ; ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ) ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ Turks ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Eastern Rumelia ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Romania Russia ᠍ ᠳᠦ Bessarabia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Serbia ᠪᠠ Montenegro ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , (ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ) ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃1878 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Austria-Hungary unilaterally Bosnia-Herzegovina ᠪᠠ Novi Pazar ᠍ ᠦᠨ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ (ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠮᠤᠬᠤᠷᠳᠠᠯ Turks ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠯᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ Novi Pazar ᠍ ᠰ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , Bosnia-Herzegovina ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ Revolution ᠍ ᠰ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Austrians Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ , 1908 ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ 30 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1912 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ Balkan War ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ Novi Pazar ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Berlin ᠍ ᠦᠨ Congress ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Balkan ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ British ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ Benjamin Disraeli ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠥᠮᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ , Britain 1878 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Cyprus ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 1881 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Tunisia ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ , France ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ; Urabi Revolt ᠍ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠬᠤ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ 1882 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ Egypt ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ peacemaking ᠪᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ 1914 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠰᠦᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠬᠣ ᠭᠣᠮᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ , ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃Serbia , Bulgaria , ᠪᠠ Greece ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ , ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠡᠮᠵᠡᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ , "sick man of Europe." significantly ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠤᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Russia ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠭᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ , Berlin ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠰᠤᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠶ᠎ᠠ Bosnia ᠪᠠ Herzogovina ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠰᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Slavs ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Bismarck ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Balkans ᠍ ᠳᠦ Austria ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ Germany ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ , Pan-Slavists ᠪᠠ Russian ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠨᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃long-run ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Balkans ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠭ , Russia ᠪᠠ Austria-Hungary ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Congress Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ Constantinople ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ Russia ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠶᠢᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Berlin ᠍ ᠦᠨ Congress Europe ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ Ottomans ᠍ ᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ Balkan ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 1912 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Bulgaria ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ revanchist ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ , ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ Macedonia ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ , Bulgaria ᠍ ᠦᠨ Principality ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ Ottoman ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ

1882 ᠍ ᠳᠦ British ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ Egypt ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Egypt ᠪᠠ Sudan Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ I ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ Powers ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠯᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ , 1914 ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ jure de Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ 2 ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ Cyprus ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Algeria ᠪᠠ Libya ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ , ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ 1830 ᠪᠠ 1912 ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ

Tanzimat ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ , 1878 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Berlin ᠍ ᠦᠨ Congress ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Armenians ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ Article 61 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ Anatolia ᠍ ᠳᠦ Hamidiye ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ , Sultan Abdul Hamid II , European ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ Armenians ᠍ ᠰ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ recruited Kurds ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠯᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃189496 ᠍ ᠰ , ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ 300.000 Armenians ᠍ ᠳᠦ 100.000 Hamidian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ᠃ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠴᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ European ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ 1896 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Constantinople ᠍ ᠳᠦ Ottoman Bank ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠥᠭᠦᠯᠡᠯ: ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ

(ᠬᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ) ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ , Empire ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Ottoman ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ Council ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠷᠬᠡᠰᠢᠶᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃19 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ , ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ Empire ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ Austria ᠪᠠ Russia ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Eastern Mediterranean ᠍ ᠳᠦ Russian ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Britain ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ kept ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠠᠯ (1908–1922)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets.

ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ Constitutional Era Ottoman Parliament ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ reconvening ᠪᠠ 1876 ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ Revolution ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ Turks ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ Union ᠪᠠ Progress ᠍ ᠦᠨ Committee ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠣᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠯᠬᠤ , Austria-Hungary ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠷᠤ , Austrians ᠪᠠ Ottomans ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ contested ᠪᠥᠰᠡ , Novi Pazar ᠍ ᠦᠨ Sanjak ᠍ ᠰ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , 1908 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Bosnia ᠪᠠ Herzegovina ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ Libya ᠍ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠦ Italo-Turkish ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Wars ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Edirne ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ Thrace ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ Balkan ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Balkan League Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 400.000 Muslims , (ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ) Bulgarian ᠠᠶᠤᠮᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ Serbian , Greek ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ retreating Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ Baghdad Railway ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ I ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠭᠰᠢᠭᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ (1914–1918)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) at the trenches of Gallipoli in 1915.

ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ Empire ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ Russian ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1914 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Ottoman-German Alliance ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠭᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 2 ᠭᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ British ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠦ , Goeben ᠪᠠ Breslau ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ I ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Eastern ᠲᠢᠶᠠᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠦ , (ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ) ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠥᠪ Powers ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠷᠤ Empire ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠬᠤ , ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ thenafter ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ German ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ Sevastopol ᠍ ᠦᠨ Russian ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ controlattacked ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ , Ottoman Navy ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Kut ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ Siege ᠪᠠ Gallipoli ᠍ ᠦᠨ Battle ᠰᠢᠭ , ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Russians ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠠᠶᠤᠯᠲᠤ Caucasus Campaign ᠰᠢᠭ , ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃(ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ) ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ States (ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ) ᠣᠭᠲᠣ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

The Ottoman Empire in 1914, including nominal and vassal Ottoman territories.
The expansion and collapse of the Ottoman Empire (click on the picture.)

1915 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Russian Caucasus ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ Army (ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ) Armenian Genocide ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Ottoman-Russian ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠷᠤ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢᠭᠤᠳᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ , ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ Armenians ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ Tehcir Law ᠍ ᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ Ottoman Armenians ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ aided ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ , Russian Empire ᠍ ᠦᠨ Caucasus ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ Armenian ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ Anatolia ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃forced ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ , ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ Anatolia ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ Armenians ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠷᠦᠦ Syria ᠪᠠ Mesopotamia ᠍ ᠳᠦ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠷᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ Armenians ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ (ᠬᠢᠷᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ) ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮᠲᠡᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ (ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ) Armenian Genocide 1.5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 1.0 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 300.000 , 600.000 ᠍ ᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠯᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 1916 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Arab Revolt ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ 2 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ , ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ Eastern ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ Ottomans ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Mudros ᠍ ᠦᠨ Armistice ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 30 , 1918 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ (ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ) ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ Iraq ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ Syria ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ , Medina ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ , Asir , Yemen ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1919 23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ British ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃Russia 1917 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ I ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠷᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ Ottomans ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ , Caucasus ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ Russian Empire ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠯᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃Svres ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ , Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ᠃ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠷ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 39.

ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ (1919–1922)[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

zmir ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ Constantinople ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ Mustafa Kemal Pasha ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ Independence ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1922 17 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ , Mehmed VI Vahdettin ᠪᠠ , Sultanate ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1922 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Turkey ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ Grand ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠣᠯᠣᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1923 24 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Lausanne ᠍ ᠦᠨ Treaty ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ GNA ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1923 29 ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ Turkey ᠍ ᠦᠨ Republic ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Caliphate ᠍ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 1924 3 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , (ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ) ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Sultan ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ exiled ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠠ Turkey ᠍ ᠦᠨ non gratae personae ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

Departure of Mehmed VI, last Sultan of the Ottoman State, 1922.

ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1974 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ notified ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠠ , ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠳ Grand ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ Prince Mehmed Abdul Kadir ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠦ , Mehmed Orhan , deposed ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ surviving ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ , Erturul Osman , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ Sultan Abdlhamid II ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠦᠭᠢ ᠣᠷᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ , 1994 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠬᠤ , ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ "no" ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ 2002 ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ , ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ 1992 ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Turkey ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ 2009 , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ born ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠬᠦᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠ , Istanbul ᠍ ᠳᠦ 97 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ Turkey ᠍ ᠳᠦ , Osman ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ "the ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ Ibrahim Tevfik , ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠦ I Sultan Abdlmecid ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠦᠦ , Bayezid Osman , ᠣᠳᠣ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ surviving ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ

ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠧᠭᠨᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ sufficiently ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠢᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ , ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠰᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ , ᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ surrounding ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ , Tanzimat ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ , increased ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 19 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ set ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ secessionist ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠠᠵᠢ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ , ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠷᠤ , ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ , Edirne ᠪᠠ Constantinople , Bursa ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠷᠤ , Mehmed ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ Bayezid , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠢ Salonica ᠰᠢᠭ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ Constantinople ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Europe ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ Jews ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠪᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ encouraged –ᠰᠠᠩ᠃ Europe ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ , Jews ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ Christian ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠮᠥᠷᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯᠣᠭᠣᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠳ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠴᠢᠨᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ᠃ ᠲᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠬᠢ ᠵᠠᠮᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠦᠪᠢᠶᠧᠺᠲ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠰᠬᠡᠬᠦ᠃ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠠ chancery ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ Islamic ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ , 17th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠢᠴᠠᠤᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ulema ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ (ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ) ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ , ᠣᠨᠳᠣᠣ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ scribal ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ/ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ Empire ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ geopolitical ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ (ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ) ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠬᠤ Spanish ᠪᠠ Portuguese ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ , ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ Marco ᠫᠣᠯᠣ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ Vasco ᠍ ᠦᠨ da ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ Gama bypassed (ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ) ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ , Christopher Columbus (ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ) ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ 1492 ᠍ ᠳᠦ Bahamas ᠍ ᠷᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ 1498 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ India ᠍ ᠦᠨ established ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠰᠢᠭ Mediterranean ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ Balta Liman ᠍ ᠦᠨ Treaty ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ , ᠲᠡᠷᠡ French ᠥᠷᠢᠰᠦᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠷᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Anglo- ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ Treaty , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ seen. ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠦᠷᠭᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ , ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ , ᠤᠯᠤᠰ Empire ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ (ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ) ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠡᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠫᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠰᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ Ottoman ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Ambassadors at Topkapı Palace

Ottoman ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ : 2 ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠶᠡᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ based ᠍ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ clergy ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ Ottomans ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠳᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠯᠠᠪᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ pre-Islamic ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠳᠤᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠤᠳᠤᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠺ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠯ ᠯᠠᠯᠤᠩ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠨᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠃ "Ottoman dynasty" ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ Osman" ᠍ ᠦᠨ , "House ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠷᠢᠳ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ethnically ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠪᠠ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ "Turkic" ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠬᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠨᠤᠯᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠰᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ Osmanlı ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠂ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ᠂ , ᠮᠥᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠯᠭᠦᠶᠢᠲᠦᠯ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠃ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ᠂ , ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠦ?, ᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ? kings" ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ᠂ pâdişâh ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ "lord , ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠧᠮ ᠭᠠᠷᠧᠮ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ Valide ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ Valide ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠧᠮ ᠭᠠᠷᠧᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠤ Women" ᠍ ᠦᠨ "Sultanate ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠦ?. ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠬᠢ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠬᠢ ᠥᠪ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠷᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠣᠯᠭᠣᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠦᠦ?. ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ᠂ Madrasa (Ottoman ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ:Medrese) ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ᠃ Medrese ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠮᠲᠠ vakifs ᠍ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠠᠯᠢᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ , ᠵᠦᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ᠃ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠬᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂

Bâb-ı Âlî, the Sublime Porte
Enderûn, ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠾᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠪᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨc ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ 3 ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠳᠥᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠬᠣᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ Rumelia and/or ᠳᠠᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Devshirme (Devşirme) ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 17th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠳᠠᠩ ᠣᠷᠣ (after "Porte") ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠪᠤᠶᠢᠳᠠᠩ ᠣᠷᠣ᠂ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ , Beylik ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠣᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ? ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ advisors) ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠹᠢᠼᠧᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ (such ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ᠂ 1320 ᠍ ᠳᠦ , ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠫᠠᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ Vizier ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠯᠠᠪᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520)

ᠫᠠᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ Vizier ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠ᠂ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠩᠨᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ 16th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠫᠠᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ Vizier ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠠc , ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ withdrew ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠩ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1908 ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ Young ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ , ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨc ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ᠃

ᠲᠦᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠰᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠨᠴᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ , ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ᠂ Phanariot ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠳ᠂ ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ Serbs, ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠳ᠃ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠳ (and ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ Christians) ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠤᠳᠬᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠦᠵᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠫᠯᠣᠮᠠᠲ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠭᠠᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ undertaken ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?

Tughra ᠺᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭᠷᠠᠹᠢᠺ ᠮᠣᠨᠣᠭᠷᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ᠂ ,, ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ,, ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠠᠯᠢ 35 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠪᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ᠂ , 《ever victorious ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ Orhan Gazi ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠮᠠᠷᠵᠠᠩ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ Tughra ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠲᠦᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠯᠯᠢᠭᠷᠠᠹ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠥᠴᠢᠷ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠴᠠᠨ᠃

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Story teller at a coffeehouse.

ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ aap ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠭᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ Mehmed II ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ , ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ Phanariot ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠣᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠩ ᠦᠳ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠰᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ᠂ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠷᠬᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠰᠦᠭᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠰᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ (balkanization) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠯ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠵᠠᠭᠦᠶᠢᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ Ottomanism, ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ participatory ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠣᠣᠰ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠢᠭ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠮᠣᠽᠠᠶᠢᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ Shahs ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠪᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?. ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ Topkapı ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ? ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠥᠰ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ: ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷᠠᠸ᠂ Skopje, Thessaloniki, ᠳᠠᠮᠤᠰᠺᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳ᠋ᠪᠧᠢᠷᠦ᠋ᠲᠢᠶᠡᠷᠤᠰᠠᠯᠢᠮᠮᠧᠺᠺᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠯᠵᠢᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠃ ᠭᠠᠷᠧᠮ ᠭᠠᠷᠧᠮ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?, ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠳᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠲᠦ ,, ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ , ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠫᠠᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠬᠦᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠳᠬᠦᠬᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 1908 ᠡᠮᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠬᠤ᠃ came under ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ 19th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠳᠠᠳᠤᠯ ᠣᠷᠭᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ 19th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠰᠤᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc , ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠯ᠂ , ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ outright-as ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤᠴᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠺ ᠦᠳ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠠᠬᠤᠯ 19th ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠴᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1701 ᠪᠠ 1750, 37 larger ᠪᠠ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠲᠠᠬᠤᠯ ᠵᠣᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ Constantinople ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ 1751 ᠪᠠ 1800 ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ 31.

ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠰᠦ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠡᠰ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠡᠰ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠰᠢᠷᠦᠭᠦᠨ ᠦᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠯᠣᠮᠪᠣᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠢᠬᠦᠷ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ "Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ" ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠬᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ , ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ , ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠡᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠢ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ .ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ- ᠍ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ- ᠍ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠩᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠰᠢ ᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠰ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨᠧᠯᠢᠲ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠥᠷᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ pre-Islamic Sassanid ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠡ ᠳᠦ᠂ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠯᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠥᠮ Sassanid ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ? ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠰᠥᠭᠦᠷ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ , ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ , ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨc ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

Selimiye Mosque was the masterpiece of Mimar Sinan, chief architect of Sultans Selim I, Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II and Murad III.
Safranbolu was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to its well-preserved Ottoman residential architecture.

ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨᠵᠤᠯ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ᠂ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠩ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠳᠣᠣᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ;ᠪᠠᠷᠣᠺᠺᠣ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠷᠣᠺᠣᠺᠣ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ᠂ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠳᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ , ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠭᠷᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠱᠥᠯᠥ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ᠂ ᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ ᠪᠠ ᠪᠤᠩᠬᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠵᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠪᠤᠯ ᠪᠠ Edirne ,᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠶᠥᠭᠢᠫᠧᠲ᠋ᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ Eritrea, , ᠲᠤᠨᠢᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ , ᠠᠯᠵᠢᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠺᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ , ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ , ᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ pluralistic ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ:ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠧᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ

Topkapı Palace was the official and primary residence of the Ottoman Sultans from 1465 to 1856, the year when Sultan Abdülmecid I moved to the Dolmabahçe Palace.
Ottoman miniature painting from the "Surname-i Vehbi" showing the music band of the Janissaries, called the Mehteran.
Iznik pottery with foliate rim, 16th century. Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum.

"Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ" ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠸᠠᠩ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮᠴᠢᠳ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ᠂ , ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ III Selim ,ᠬᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ᠣᠰᠤᠮᠠᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠸᠢᠰᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠨc ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ .ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ makam ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ Anatolian ᠪᠠ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ , ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ (the ᠬᠢᠭᠢᠯᠢᠪᠠᠳ ). ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠨᠢ , ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ 2 ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ: Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ , ᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ᠎ᠡ᠃ "Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠡᠯᠡᠳᠬᠡᠬᠦ" ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ , ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ , Constantinople –ᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠴᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠯᠢᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠷᠰᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠮᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡ , ᠠᠮᠲᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ , Oᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ , ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠄ name ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ Ottomandebthistory ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠨᠭᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
  2. Map of Europe and the Ottoman Empire in the year 1900. 2011-11-06 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠡᠰᠦ