ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
— «ᠢᠷᠡᠨ» ᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠪᠠ —
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ
ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
جمهوری اسلامی ایران (ᠫᠧᠷᠰ)</br>ᠵᠢᠮᠬᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠡ ᠡᠰᠯᠠᠮᠢ ᠶᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ
ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: استقلال. آزادی. جمهوری اسلامی</br>(ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ᠂ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡ᠂ </br> ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ 《سرود ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران》
(ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ)

ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ
ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠷᠴᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯᠲᠧᠭᠧᠷᠠᠨ
ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠮᠠᠰᠬᠠᠳ᠋ᠡᠰᠹᠠᠬᠠᠨ
ᠺᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤᠲᠠᠪᠷᠢᠽ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ 
(2011 ᠤᠨ)
ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ →
61% – ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
16% – ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
10% – ᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ
6% – ᠯᠤᠷ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ
6% – ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
 -  ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢᠨ
(ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ
ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ
ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ
 -  ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠧᠨᠧᠢ (1989)
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠷᠤᠬᠠᠨᠢ (2013)
 -  ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 550 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠾᠧᠮᠠᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 
 -  1501 ᠣᠨ ᠰᠧᠹᠧᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 
 -  1979-04-01 ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 1,648,195 km2 (18)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 0.7 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2013) 77,176,930[1] (17)
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2010) 74,700,000 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 45 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2013 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $987.115 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 17  ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $12,803[2] 
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $388.512 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $5,039[2] 
Gini (2008) 38[3] (ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2013) 0.742[4] (ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ) (76)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠷᠢᠠᠯ (﷼) (IRR)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ (GMT+03:30)
 -  ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ (GMT+04:30)
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠳᠣᠮᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ +98 / .ir, ایران.
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ IR, IRN / ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ
ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ جمهوری اسلامی ایران᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 伊朗伊斯兰共和国 ᠂ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ Islamic Republic of Iran) ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ[5][6][7] ᠥᠷᠦᠨᠡᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ 1935 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 1,648,195 ᠺᠦᠸᠠᠳ᠋ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 18 ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ)᠂ 78 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ[8]᠃ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ; ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨᠫᠠᠺᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ ; ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨᠭ᠌ ; ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠺᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠲᠧᠭᠧᠷᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠬᠡ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠲᠡᠯᠬᠡᠷᠡᠵᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 2800 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 625 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠢᠳᠢᠴᠦᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ 1000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠠᠾᠧᠮᠧᠨ᠂ ᠠᠷᠱᠠᠺᠰᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ 1551 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠧᠹᠧᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠣᠮᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠳᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ 1906 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠳᠤ᠂ 1979 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 4 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠂ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠃ 1979 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ


ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠤ
ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠢ
ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠬᠦ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ
ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ
ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ
ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ: ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭᠯᠠᠪᠠ᠃
ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ Πέρσης ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠢᠢᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 2-3 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠹᠠᠷᠰ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠹᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠶᠠᠨ (ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ)᠂ ᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠨ 3 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠷᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[9] ᠣᠳᠣ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠳ
ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ᠎ᠠ: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
 ᠢᠷᠠᠨ (ايران), ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠡᠷᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠠᠵᠢᠺ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠥᠷᠦᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ «ᠢᠷᠡᠨ» ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ 1935 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠷᠧᠽᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ 1959 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠵᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ [ᠢᠷᠡᠨ] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠢ [ᠫᠧᠷᠰ] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[10] ᠫᠧᠷᠰ᠂ ᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤᠣᠰᠧᠲ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠨᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ (ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ 1,648,195 ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 18 ᠍ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ 24° — 40°᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ 44° — 64° ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ (740 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ)᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠲᠤᠯᠵᠤ (ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ 2440 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ)᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ (1458 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ)᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ (499 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ)᠂ ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨ (35 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ)᠂ ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ (790 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ (992 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ)᠂ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨ (936 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ)᠂ ᠫᠠᠺᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ (909 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ) ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ — 5,440 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠃

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠴᠤᠯᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠃ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 3000 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ 1500 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠰᠤᠨᠵᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠯᠪᠷᠵᠡ ᠍ ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠴᠡᠭ ᠳᠠᠮᠠᠸᠠᠩᠳ᠋ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ (5610 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ) ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠺᠠᠸᠢᠷᠯᠤᠲ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠵᠡᠯᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠥᠯ — ᠲᠥᠪ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ (900 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ )᠎ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠧᠰᠣᠫᠣᠲ᠋ᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠽᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ  ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠠᠸᠠᠩᠳ᠋ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ
ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠰ
  1. ᠳᠠᠮᠠᠸᠠᠩᠳ᠋ (5610 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)
  2. ᠠᠯᠮᠠᠺᠬ (4850 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)
  3. ᠰᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠᠩ (4811 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)
  4. ᠳᠧᠨᠠ (4450 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)
  5. ᠵᠠᠷᠳ᠋ᠺᠦ᠋ᠬ (4250 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)

6. ᠰᠢᠷᠺᠤᠬ (4050 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)
7. ᠲᠧᠹᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ (4025 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)
8. ᠲᠠᠴᠢᠯ (3964 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)
9. ᠨᠧᠽᠸᠠ (3810 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)
10. ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠨᠳ᠋ (3700 ᠮᠸᠲᠷ)

ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠷᠮᠢᠶᠠ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ᠃ ᠵᠠᠭᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠵᠢ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠨ 950 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠳᠠᠭ ᠺᠠᠷᠤᠩ ᠍ ᠢ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠺᠠᠷᠬᠧᠳᠧᠽᠵᠠᠶᠠᠨᠳᠧ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠤᠷᠮᠢᠶᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠴᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠃ ᠬᠦᠽᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠨᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 250 ᠮᠢᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ 1,000 ᠮᠢᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠺᠠᠰᠫᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ᠂ ᠵᠠᠭᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ 500 ᠮᠢᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ 100 ᠮᠢᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠨᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠣᠨᠢ᠂ ᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠦᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠠᠳᠤᠭᠤ᠂ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠡᠯᠵᠢᠭᠡ᠂ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠭᠡ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠮᠠᠯ᠂ ᠭᠤᠷᠭᠤᠤᠯ᠂ ᠢᠲᠠᠭᠤ᠂ ᠪᠦᠷᠭᠦᠳ᠂ ᠥᠷᠪᠢ ᠲᠠᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠪᠠᠭᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠴᠢᠩᠪᠦᠷ (ᠣᠳᠣ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠴᠢᠩᠪᠦᠷ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠩ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠪᠠᠭᠠᠢ᠂ ᠦᠨᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠴᠢᠨᠣ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠡᠷᠯᠢᠭ ᠭᠠᠬᠠᠢ᠂ ᠭᠥᠷᠦᠭᠡᠰᠦ᠂ ᠴᠣᠬᠣᠷ ᠢᠷᠪᠢᠰ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠠᠷᠰᠯᠠᠨᠪᠠᠷᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[11]

ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠮᠠᠯᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠢᠨᠡᠭᠦᠷᠡᠰᠦᠾᠷᠣᠮᠵᠡᠰᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠷᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠴᠠᠶᠢᠷᠮᠠᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠦᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ
ᠶᠠᠰᠤ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ᠂ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ
ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 61% ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋
ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 16% ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋
ᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 10% ᠰᠤᠩᠨᠢᠲ
ᠯᠤᠷ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 6% ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋
ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ 2% ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋
ᠪᠠᠯᠤᠴᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 2% ᠰᠤᠩᠨᠢᠲ
ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ 2% ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ
ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
1500 4,000,000
1800 7,000,000
1900 9,860,000
1956 18,954,704
1976 33,708,744
1996 60,055,488
2011 75,149,669

1950—1990 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠭᠵᠣᠮ ᠥᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 75,149,669 ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 61 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠨᠢ 30 ᠡᠴᠠ ᠳᠣᠭᠣᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠰ᠃ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠥᠰᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ 1.3%᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ 46 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/ km²᠂ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠨᠢ 84%᠂ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ 71%᠃

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ 4 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ 1979 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠹᠬᠠᠨᠨᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠡᠴᠠ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ 1 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 61% ᠋ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ᠂ 16% ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ᠂ 10% ᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤ᠂ 6% ᠯᠤᠷ᠂ 2% ᠠᠷᠠᠪ᠂ 2% ᠪᠠᠯᠤᠴᠢ᠂ 2% ᠲᠦᠺᠮᠧᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠷᠮᠧᠨᠭᠦᠷᠦᠵᠢᠶ ᠠᠴᠧᠷᠺᠧᠰᠠᠰᠰᠢᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ (᠋ᠫᠧᠷᠰ᠂ ᠺᠦᠷ ᠲᠦ᠂ ᠯᠤᠷ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠤᠴᠢ)᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ (99.4% ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ)᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠢᠭᠲᠡᠨ (ᠡᠨᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ᠂ ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠨ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠂ ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋ ᠨᠢ 90%) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠴᠢᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ᠂ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠵᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ 71 ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ 2030 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 80% ᠬᠦᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠲᠡᠢ᠃[12]

ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠰᠫᠣᠷᠲ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠌

ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠪᠢᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠪᠢᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 30% ᠳᠠᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ [[ᠭᠸᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ]᠂ ᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ᠂ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ ᠬᠠᠷᠰᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠤ) ᠬᠣᠣᠰᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠌

ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠰᠢᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳ᠋ᠧᠪᠠᠵᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠠᠮᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠹᠢᠷᠳᠠᠢᠰᠢ (940—1020)᠂ ᠣᠮᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠮ (1048—1131) ᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠴᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠪᠢᠼᠧᠨᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠢᠪ ᠰᠢᠨ ᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ 450 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠣᠷᠣᠡᠰᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠮᠰᠡᠭ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

19 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 21 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠠᠤᠷᠽ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠷᠢᠲᠤᠵᠤ ᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠮ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ — ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠢᠨᠣ᠋ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠺᠢᠨᠣ᠋ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠢᠨᠣ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠱᠠᠩᠨᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠺᠧᠪᠠᠪ (ᠱᠣᠷᠣᠯᠠᠭ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠰᠦ ᠢᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠫᠣᠯᠣ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠲᠦ ᠪᠥᠬᠡ (ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠥᠬᠡ)᠂ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠪᠥᠮᠪᠥᠭᠡᠪᠡᠶᠢᠰᠪᠣᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠤᠯᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠢᠮᠫᠢᠺ ᠠᠴᠠ 15 ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠮᠧᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠪᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠰᠣᠨ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠠᠭᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠤᠵᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠯᠠᠮ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠮ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠢᠳ᠋ (ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 678–549 ᠣᠨ)᠂ ᠠᠾᠧᠮᠧᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 550–330 ᠣᠨ)᠂ ᠰᠧᠯᠧᠸᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠩᠵᠤᠨ ᠤ)᠂ ᠫᠠᠷᠹᠢᠩ (ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ 247 – ᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ 224 ᠣᠨ) ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (224–652) ᠺᠲ᠋ᠧᠰᠢᠹᠣᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳ᠋ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠾᠧᠮᠧᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠺᠢᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠷᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠺᠧᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ᠋ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠡᠩᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠷᠧᠺᠷᠤᠮᠠ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠢᠨᠳ᠋ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ᠬᠠᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

633 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠷᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠤᠩ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠣᠷᠣᠡᠰᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠷᠴᠢ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠤᠩ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠦᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠮᠧᠢᠩ (ᠳᠠᠮᠤᠰᠺ ᠤᠨ) ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠮᠡᠳ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠪᠪᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ (ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠤᠨ) ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠨᠴᠤᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠬᠢᠷ (821–873)᠂ ᠰᠠᠹᠹᠠᠷ (861–1003)᠂ ᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (819–1005) ᠭᠡᠳ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳ᠋ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠢᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (934–1062) ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠪᠤᠢᠢᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠧᠯᠵᠢᠺ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠴᠣᠬᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠮᠧᠢᠩ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 10%᠂ ᠠᠪᠪᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 40%᠂ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ 100% ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠳᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠴᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠺᠣᠷᠠᠨ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ

1219–1224 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠧᠽᠮ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠠᠷᠲᠠᠭᠤᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠮᠥᠬᠥᠭᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1256 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠬᠤᠯᠡᠭᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠯᠡᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠯᠬᠠᠨᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1370 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ 156 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠦᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠯᠠ ᠫᠧᠷᠰᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1000 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠠᠪᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠹᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (1502–1736) ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠰᠠᠹᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠰᠦᠮᠠᠢᠯ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠩᠨᠢᠳ᠋ ᠳᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠱᠢᠢᠢᠳ᠋ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠰᠹᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠠᠹᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠷᠴᠤ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠰᠮᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠮᠣᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠮᠥᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1587–1629 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠪᠪᠠᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠰᠧᠢᠨ 1722 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠹᠰᠢᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ (1736–1796)᠂ ᠺᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠍ ᠤᠨ (1796–1925) ᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠮᠠᠰᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠲᠧᠭᠧᠷᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1921 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠷᠧᠽᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ 20 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯ᠎ ᠢᠢᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠳᠬᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ (ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠴᠣᠯᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠠᠬᠠᠯᠪᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ (1925–1979) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

1941 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ-ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠴᠠᠭᠤ ᠷᠧᠽᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠦᠦ ᠮᠣᠬᠣᠮ ᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠷᠧᠽᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃ 1951 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠬᠣᠮ ᠢᠠᠶᠠᠳ᠋ ᠮᠣᠰᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤᠺ ᠨᠧᠹᠲ ᠦᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ᠂ ᠠᠭᠤᠷᠬᠠᠶ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ  ᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠮᠴᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ 1953 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ-ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠣᠬᠣᠮ ᠢᠠᠶᠠᠳ᠋ ᠷᠧᠽᠠ ᠰᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠢᠲᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ «ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ» ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠵᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠷᠦᠾᠣᠯᠯᠠ ᠬᠣᠮᠧᠢᠨᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃

ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1977 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠰᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠡᠢ᠃ 1979 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠦᠷᠪᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠮᠧᠢᠨᠢ ᠠᠶᠠᠲᠠᠯᠠᠯ (ᠠᠯᠯᠠᠾ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ) ᠤᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠨ «ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ» (ᠷᠠᠬᠤᠪᠠᠷ) ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠯᠢᠮᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠬᠥᠷᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤᠮ ᠬᠤᠰᠰᠧᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ-ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ (1980–1988)– ᠍ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ 1982 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1989 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠧᠨᠧᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠺᠪᠤᠷ ᠬᠠᠱᠧᠮᠢ ᠷᠠᠹᠰᠠᠩᠵᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠽᠢᠨ᠋ᠧᠰ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠬᠠᠮᠳ᠋ ᠬᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠮᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠧᠷᠠᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠸ ᠮᠢᠬᠠᠮᠤᠳ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳᠢᠨᠧᠵ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ 2013 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠷᠤᠬᠠᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1979 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠣᠣᠰᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

  1. ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ (ᠷᠠᠬᠤᠪᠠᠷ) — ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠴᠢᠭ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠃ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ᠂ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ 12 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ 6 ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠭᠡᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠨᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃
  2. ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ — ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠃ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 8 ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ᠂ 21 ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 4 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠯᠴᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃
  3. ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ — ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ 290 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 4 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠪ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ 182᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ 75᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ 33 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  4. ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ — ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ 6 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 6 ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠴᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ᠂ ᠺᠣᠨᠰᠤᠶᠢᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠥᠷᠦᠵᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠨᠣ᠂ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 1979 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠮᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1980 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠦᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠴᠧᠴᠧᠨ ᠦ (ᠣᠰᠧᠲ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠠᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠰᠷᠸᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠦᠷᠢᠴᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ 1971 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠫᠯᠣᠮᠠᠲ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠫᠯᠣᠮᠠᠲ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠢᠰᠷᠸᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠОПЕК ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠃

ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 31 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ (ᠮᠤᠵᠢ) ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 321 ᠱᠠᠾᠷᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ (ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠂ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠡᠷᠡᠮᠪᠡ ᠳᠡᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 740 ᠪᠠᠬᠰ (ᠰᠤᠮᠤ)᠂ 982 ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠷ (ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ 31 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ:

1. ᠲᠧᠭᠧᠷᠠᠨ
2. ᠺᠣᠮ
3. ᠲᠥᠪ
4. ᠺᠠᠽᠸᠢᠨ
5. ᠭᠡᠯᠢᠨ
6. ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠧᠪᠢᠯ
7. ᠵᠠᠩᠵᠢᠨ
8. ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠵᠠᠨ
9. ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠽᠧᠷᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠵᠠᠨ
10. ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠳᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ

11. ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠳᠠᠨ
12. ᠺᠧᠷᠮᠠᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ
13. ᠢᠯᠤᠮ
14. ᠯᠦ᠋ᠷᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ
15. ᠬᠦᠽᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ
16. ᠴᠧᠬᠠᠷᠮᠧᠬᠠᠯ-ᠪᠠᠬᠠᠲ ᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
17. ᠺᠣᠬᠣᠭᠡᠯᠤᠶᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ-ᠪᠤᠸᠧᠷᠠᠬᠠᠮᠧᠳ
18. ᠪᠤᠰᠢᠷ
19. ᠹᠠᠷᠰ
20. ᠬᠣᠷᠮᠣᠵᠠᠭᠠᠨ

21. ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ-ᠪᠧᠯᠤᠵᠢᠰᠲᠠᠨ
22. ᠺᠧᠷᠮᠠᠨ
23. ᠢᠠᠵᠠ ᠳᠤ
24. ᠡᠰᠹᠠᠬᠠᠨ
25. ᠰᠧᠮᠨᠠᠨ
26. ᠮᠠᠵᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷᠠᠨ
27. ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ
28. ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ
29. ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ-ᠷᠧᠽᠠᠸᠢ
30. ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ
31. ᠠᠯᠪᠷᠵᠡ




ᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 2012 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 548.590 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠮ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ᠂ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 988.437 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠮ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 194 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ 21᠂ 17 ᠍ ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ 45%᠂ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ 45% (ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠣᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ) ᠂ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠳᠤ 10% ᠪᠣᠰᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠰᠣ᠂ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣ᠂ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ
ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠳᠣᠷᠣ — ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ

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from:0 till:13.80 color:PRI width:20 align:left fontsize:S text:"ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ (13.8%)"
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ᠵᠠᠮ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠷᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1,435 ᠮᠢᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ  ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠷᠢᠭ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ 11,106 km ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠰᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠰᠦ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠲᠧᠭᠧᠷᠠᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠤ᠋ ᠣᠭᠲᠣᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠧᠭᠧᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷᠣ᠋ 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ 172,927 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠲᠠᠶ ᠪᠣᠯ 125,908 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠷᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ᠃ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 11 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠷᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠺᠠᠷᠤᠩ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 850 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 316 ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠰᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 8᠂ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 21 ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ 25 ᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠡᠢᠢᠲᠡ 54 ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠢᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 150 ᠡᠴᠡ 200 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠰᠰᠠᠯᠤᠶᠢᠶ᠎ᠡᠪᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ-ᠠᠪᠪᠠᠰᠪᠠᠨᠳᠠᠷ-ᠬᠣᠮᠧᠢᠨᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠠᠴᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ 90% ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. بر اساس برآورد مرکز آمار ایران؛ جمعیت ایران به ۷۷᠃۱ میلیون نفر رسید
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Islamic Republic of Iran". International Monetary Fund.
  3. Central Bank of Iran: Economic Trends 2008/2009.
  4. Human Development Report 2010. United Nations (2010).
  5. Iran Country Profile. BBC NEWS. 8 August 2012 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  6. "CESWW" – Definition of Central Eurasia. Cesww.fas.harvard.edu. 1 August 2010 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  7. Iran Guide. National Geographic (14 June 2013). 21 June 2013 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  8. CIA Factbook – 2010. Cia.gov. 2011-09-14 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  9. MacKenzie, David Niel (1998), "Ērān, Ērānšahr", Encyclopedia Iranica, vol. 8, Costa Mesa: Mazda, <http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/eran-eransah>
  10. Renaming Persia. persiansarenotarabs.com (2007). 26 Apr 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  11. Guggisberg, C.A.W. (1961). Simba: The Life of the Lion. Howard Timmins, Cape Town.
  12. "Islamic Azad University". Retrieved 28 January 2008". Wayback.archive.org. 10 November 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2013.

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Commons
Викимедиа дуу дүрсний сан: ایران

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