ᠢᠷᠠᠺ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ جمهورية العراق
ᠠᠯᠢ-ᠵᠢᠮᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠯᠢ-ᠢᠷᠠᠺᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ کۆماری عێراق
ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠷᠢ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: الله أكبر (ᠠᠷᠠᠪ)
ᠠᠯᠯᠠᠾᠤ ᠠᠺᠪᠤᠷ
"ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ"
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
موطني‎
ᠮᠠᠪᠲᠤᠨᠢ
"ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠮᠢᠨᠢ"
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ 
(ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ)
ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳ᠋
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠪᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ  75-80% ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ
15-20% ᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤ
5% ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ
ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠵᠢᠯᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠨᠢ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠯᠠ-ᠮᠠᠯᠢᠺᠢ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ
ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ
 -  ᠣᠰᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 1919 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 
 -  ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠴᠠ 1932 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 
 -  ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1958 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 7 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 14 
 -  ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 10 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 15 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 438,317 km2 (50)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 1.1
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2011) 30,399,572[1] (36)
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 73.5 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $113.366 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $3,537[2] 
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $82.150 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $2,563[2] 
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠳ᠋ᠢᠨᠠᠷ (IQD)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ +3
ᠵᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ
ᠳ᠋ᠦᠮᠠᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ .iq
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 964

ᠢᠷᠠᠺ (ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ العراق‎, ᠠᠯᠠ-ᠢᠷᠠᠺ), ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ جمهورية العراق, ᠵᠢᠮᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠲᠤ ᠠᠯᠠ-ᠢᠷᠠᠺ; ᠺᠦᠷᠳᠤ: كؤماری عێراق ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠷᠧ ᠢᠷᠠᠺᠧ) ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠷᠣᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠰᠤᠨᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠥᠯ᠂ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠷᠺ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠨ᠂ ᠤᠷᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠺᠦᠧᠠᠶᠢᠲᠰᠠᠤᠳᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ  ᠢᠢᠨ 58 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠫᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠷᠪᠤᠰ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳ᠋ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠢᠭᠷᠧᠦᠹᠷᠠᠲ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠶᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠴᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃[3]

ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠧᠰᠣᠫᠣᠲ᠋ᠠᠮ (ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠪᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ᠂ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠳᠤᠭᠤᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠺᠺᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠮᠧᠷ ᠤᠨᠠᠰᠰᠢᠷ ᠤᠨᠸᠠᠸᠢᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠠᠪᠪᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹᠲ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠾᠧᠮᠧᠨᠢ᠂ ᠰᠧᠯᠧᠸᠺ᠂ ᠠᠷᠱᠠᠺ ᠤᠨᠰᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠮᠠᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ᠂ ᠷᠠᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠹᠲ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠢᠶᠠᠨᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ᠂ ᠰᠧᠹᠧᠪ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠠᠹᠰᠢᠷ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃[4][5]

1920 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠭᠦᠷᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠢᠳ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠣᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ 1921 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ 1932 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠵᠤ᠂ 1958 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1968-2003 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠯᠤᠭᠤᠳᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2003 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠪᠲᠣᠯᠵᠤᠰᠠᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠲᠤᠮ ᠬᠤᠰᠧᠢᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 6 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠦ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠵᠢᠨ᠂ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠮᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠡᠯᠪᠡᠭᠰᠢᠵᠦ᠂ 2007 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠳᠡ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠨᠠᠮᠵᠢᠮᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠡᠭᠡᠯᠵᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ 30,000 ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 31 ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[6][7]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iz.html
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Iraq. International Monetary Fund. 2011-04-21 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America.
  4. Top 10 Battles for the Control of Iraq. Livescience.com. 2009-03-23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  5. Iraq Guide. Business.maktoob.com. 2009-03-23 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  6. Cockburn, Patrick. "31 December 2011: day the last US soldier leaves Iraq", The Independent, 2008-11-28 Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. 
  7. "Huge U.S. air base returned to Iraqi control", 9 November 2011. 16 November 2011 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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