ᠢᠰᠠᠺ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠰᠡᠷᠡ ᠢᠰᠠᠺ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ

ᠭᠣᠳᠹᠷᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠯᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠰᠠᠺ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠭ (1689)
ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1643.01.04
[ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ: 1642.12.25][1]
ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ᠂ ᠯᠢᠨᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠰᠢᠷ᠂
ᠸᠦᠯᠰᠣᠲᠣᠷᠫ ᠪᠠᠢ-ᠺᠣᠯᠰᠲᠡᠷᠢᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠤ
ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 1727.03.31
[ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ: 1727.03.20][1]
ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ᠂ ᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦᠳᠡᠯᠰᠡᠺᠰ᠂ ᠺᠡᠨᠰᠦᠢᠩᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ
ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ
ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨᠰᠢᠯ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ
ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ
ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠠᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠣᠨᠣᠮᠢᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠯᠣᠰᠣᠹᠢᠠᠯᠬᠢᠮᠢᠲᠧᠣᠯᠣᠭᠢ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠡᠮᠪᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ
ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ
ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠣᠭᠣᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ
ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠷᠢᠨᠢᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠯᠧᠵᠢ᠂ ᠺᠡᠮᠪᠷᠢᠵᠢ
ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢᠰᠠᠺ ᠪᠠᠷᠷᠣᠤ[2]
ᠪᠡᠩᠵᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠫᠦᠯᠯᠢᠨ[3][4]
ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠱᠠᠪᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠷᠣᠵᠡᠷ ᠺᠦᠳᠡᠰ
ᠸᠢᠯᠤᠮ ᠸᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ
ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭ
ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ
ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ
ᠣᠫᠲ᠋ᠢᠺ
ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠢ ᠮᠠᠷ[5]
ᠫᠣᠯᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠰ[6]
ᠤᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ  ᠨᠢᠺᠣᠯᠠᠰ ᠹᠠᠼᠢᠣ ᠳᠡ ᠳᠦᠢᠯᠯᠧᠷ
ᠵᠣᠩ ᠺ ᠡᠴᠢᠯ
ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠷᠶᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ
ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ
Is. Newton
ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ
ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠠᠨᠠ ᠡᠶᠢᠰᠺᠠᠦ᠋ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠰᠡᠷᠡ ᠢᠰᠠᠺ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Sir Isaac Newton᠂ 1643 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 1 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 4 - 1727 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 31 [ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 1642.12.25 - 1726.3.20]) ᠨᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠢᠽᠢᠺᠴᠢ᠎ ᠂ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠠᠨᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ 1687 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠳ (Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica) ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠳᠠ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠵᠧᠨᠧᠷᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠺᠧᠫᠯᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠳᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠯᠴᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠤ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠂ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠢᠵᠢᠯᠬᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠠᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠮᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠍ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠮᠫᠦ᠋ᠯᠰ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠥᠨᠴᠥᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠮᠫᠦ᠋ᠯᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠯ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ  ᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠪᠡᠶ ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠦᠷᠢᠶ ᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠤᠲᠤᠷ ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠷᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠢᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠦᠷᠢᠶ ᠡ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠋ ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠤ ᠭᠣᠲ᠋ᠹᠷᠲ ᠸᠢᡀᠸᠮ ᠯᠧᠢᠪᠨᠢᠼ(Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠪᠢᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠍ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠹᠦᠨᠺᠼ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ "ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ" ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠴᠤᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ 2005 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮᠯᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠧᠷᠲ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠱᠲ᠋ᠧᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠢ᠃  ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠦᠨᠡᠬᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠴᠢᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠷᠡᠯᠡᠮ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠣᠳᠣ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠣᠵᠢᠭ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠮᠠᠢ᠂ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠮᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠥᠷᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠰᠡᠷᠢᠭᠡᠳ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠪᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠡᠯᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠣᠶᠣᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠮᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠳᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠬᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠨᠢᠳᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠨᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠴᠢᠷᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠵᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠶᠠᠭᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠥᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠳᠦ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠠᠷᠠ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠯᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠭᠴᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠥᠷᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠨᠢᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠠ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠮᠡᠨᠳᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠠᠰᠢ᠂ ᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠮᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ᠂ ᠰᠤᠤᠲᠤ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠣᠶᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠳᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠬᠢᠨᠢᠳᠤᠨ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ 27 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠍᠍ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ 30 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠵᠢᠩᠬᠢᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠷᠶᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠ (ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ᠂ ᠬᠦᠦ᠂ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠨᠡᠰᠦ ) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠰ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠪᠦᠯᠬᠦᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠺᠡᠮᠪᠷᠢᠵᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠯᠧᠵᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠷᠢᠨᠢᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠶᠢᠰᠤᠯᠧᠮ ᠍ᠳ᠍ᠠᠬᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠰᠢᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠤᠭ ᠱᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡ ᠤᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠳᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠰᠦᠰ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠺᠣᠳᠣᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠯᠬᠢᠮᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1936 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠩ ᠮᠡᠶᠢᠨᠤᠷᠠᠳ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠭᠲᠠᠷᠭᠤᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 1970 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠯᠬᠢᠮᠢᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠡᠩ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ 40 ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠴᠤᠬᠤᠮ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠴᠤ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠥᠷᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠲᠠᠴᠢᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ: ᠶᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ (ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ), ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠭᠷᠧᠭᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 'ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ' ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠭᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠶᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠦᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠶᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠶᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 1642 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 25 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠷᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠭᠷᠧᠭᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 1643 ᠤᠨ ᠤ 1 ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 4 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠦᠵᠢᠭᠡ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠨᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ 11 ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ 1752 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠢᠳ ᠭᠷᠧᠭᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠯ (ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ) 1 ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ 3 ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 25 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠥᠪᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢ justin bieber('ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ'). ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠣᠩᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  2. Mordechai Feingold, Barrow, Isaac (1630–1677), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, May 2007; accessed 24 February 2009; explained further in Mordechai Feingold " Newton, Leibniz, and Barrow Too: An Attempt at a Reinterpretation"; Isis, Vol. 84, No. 2 (June, 1993), pp. 310-338
  3. Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Newton, Isaac, n.4
  4. Gjersten, Derek (1986). The Newton Handbook. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 
  5. Westfall, Richard S. [1980] (1983). "Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 530–1. 
  6. Snobelen, Stephen D. (1999). "Isaac Newton, heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (PDF). British Journal for the History of Science 32: 381–419. DOI:10.1017/S0007087499003751.

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Викимедиа дуу дүрсний сан: Isaac Newton

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