ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ Republik Indonesia
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠤᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠡᠪ ᠡᠶᠡᠲᠡᠢ</br>(ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠠ: ᠪᠢᠨᠡᠨᠺᠠ ᠲᠤᠩᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠺ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ:
Indonesia Raya - «ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽ»
ᠹᠠᠢᠢᠯ:Indonesiaraya.ogg

ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ 
(ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ)
Jakarta COA.svg ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠ
ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ  ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ
(ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠷᠦᠦ)
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠵᠣᠺᠣ ᠸᠢᠳᠣᠳᠣ
 -  ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠱᠤᠹ ᠺᠠᠯᠯᠠ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ (ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠷᠦᠦ)
ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠠᠯᠵᠤ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠠᠯᠵᠤ 
 -  ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1945 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 8 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 17 
 -  ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1949 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 12 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 7 
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 1,919,440 km2 (15)
 -  ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ (%) 4.85
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2010) 237,556,363[1] (4)
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 123.76 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $1.029 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $4,394[2] 
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $706.735 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ[2] 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $3,015[2] 
Gini (2002) 34.3 
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2010) 0.600[3] (ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ) (108)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠷᠦᠶᠢᠢᠶᠠ (IDR)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ +7+9
ᠳ᠋ᠦᠮᠠᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ .id
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ 62

ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ-ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ 17,508 ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ[4] ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠪᠡᠷ Republik Indonesia), ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ, ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠵᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ (ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ) ᠍ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠯ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠲᠦᠵᠦ᠂ 1949 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠬᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠬᠢᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠲᠡᠨ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠷᠦᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠥᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠯᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1950 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ᠂ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 33 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠠᠫᠦᠷᠪᠷᠦᠨᠧᠢᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠭ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠮᠣᠷᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ-ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠫᠠᠯᠤᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢᠨᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠡᠰᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠰᠦ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠢᠯᠢᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ 1.9 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 238 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 4 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 15 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ km ᠳᠦ 123.7 ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ (79 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ᠃ VII ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠷᠪᠡᠵᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ᠂ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠠᠵᠠᠫᠠᠬᠢᠲ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠤᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠬᠢᠨᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠪᠲᠠᠵᠤ Xᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠴᠣᠭᠤᠴᠠᠢ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 86% ᠨᠢ ᠮᠦᠰᠦ᠋ᠯᠮᠠᠨ (ᠬᠣᠲᠣᠩ) ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠧᠺᠳᠤᠨᠢᠺ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠩᠭᠤᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠱᠦᠷᠭᠦᠯᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠰᠦᠷᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠬᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠰᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠡᠩ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠨᠤᠷᠭᠤᠮᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ᠃ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ДНБ [2010 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ] 1.124 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠩᠨᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂[5][6] ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ ᠨᠣᠣᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢ ДНБ [2010 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ] $4,666 ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1967 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ Association of South - East Asian Nations ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠳᠣᠨ ᠤ «ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽ» ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠦ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠵᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠢᠶᠠᠷMaleische Archipel (ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠲᠣᠷᠢᠭ), Nederlandsch Oost Indië (ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ), Indië (ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ), de Oost (ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠮᠵᠢᠷᠭᠦᠶᠢᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠴᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃[7] 1850 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠴᠢ ᠵᠣᠷᠵᠢ ᠸᠢᠨᠳᠵᠣᠷ ᠡᠷᠯ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ Indunesians (ᠢᠨᠳᠦᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢᠶᠠᠨᠰ, «ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ») ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[8] ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠭ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠰᠬᠢᠪᠡᠯ Indus (ᠢᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ «ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ» ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ᠂ νῆσος (ᠨᠧᠰᠣᠰ - «ᠠᠷᠠᠯ») ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠦᠭᠡᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠤᠮᠰᠠᠨᠵᠡᠢ᠃[9] 1900 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ Indonesia ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[7]. ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ 20 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠵᠠᠨ «ᠤᠯᠤᠰ» «ᠣᠷᠣᠨ»᠂ «ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ» ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠍ ᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠺᠢᠷᠢᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨᠢᠢ (homo erectus) ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠯᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮᠰᠠᠨᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ "ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ 1.5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ 35 ᠮᠢᠩᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠬᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[10][11][12] ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠣᠨᠧᠽ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ "ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠣᠨᠧᠽ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠸᠠᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠮ᠃ᠡ᠃ᠥ 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠧᠯᠢᠨᠧᠽ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠢ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠰᠢ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ" ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[13] ᠮ᠃ᠡ᠃ᠥ VIII ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠡᠷᠬᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠲᠤᠲᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠴᠣᠭᠤᠵᠤ᠂[14] ᠮ᠃ᠡ I ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠣᠰᠬᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢᠵᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠰᠢ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ᠂ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠵᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[15] ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[16][17]

ᠪᠠᠨᠳᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠠᠳᠠ ᠤᠷᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠤᠮ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠦᠷᠲᠦ ᠵᠠᠳᠢ ᠮᠣᠳᠣ
ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠢᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ

VII ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ᠂ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠱᠷᠪᠡᠵᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ (ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ) ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠ᠂ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠬᠢᠨᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[18][19] VIII-ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠯᠧᠨᠳ᠋ᠷᠠ᠂ ᠬᠢᠨᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠠᠲᠠᠷᠠᠮ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠮᠠᠵᠠᠫᠠᠬᠢᠲ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠢᠨᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠯᠠ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠳᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠷᠰᠢᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠢᠭᠡᠷᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[20]

ᠮᠥᠰᠥᠶᠢᠯᠮᠡᠨ (ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠨ) ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠴᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠮᠵᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃[21] ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠳ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠤᠮᠠᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠯᠠ ᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠦᠭᠰᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ Xᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠ᠂ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠵᠠᠩᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[22] ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠳᠢᠪᠠᠰᠢᠷ ᠴᠡᠴᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ 1512 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠰᠥᠱᠺᠦ᠋ ᠰᠧᠷᠷᠠᠨᠢ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[23] ᠠᠷᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ 1602 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1800 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ (ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ) ᠭᠡᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠦᠶᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠷᠬᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨᠢ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠯᠠ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠷᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[24] ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡᠳ 1908 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠮᠰᠠᠷ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠴᠦ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ II ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨᠢ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠢᠢᠵᠤ ᠣᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[25][26] ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠵᠤ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠲᠡᠮᠡᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠰᠤᠶᠢᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[27][28][29][30] ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠲᠤᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ 1949 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠮᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠯᠳᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[28][31] ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1962 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠶᠤ-ᠢᠣᠷᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ᠂ 1969 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃[32]

ᠰᠤᠶᠢᠷᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠳᠢᠭᠯᠢᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠪ ᠬᠠᠮᠳᠣ ᠨᠠᠮ (ИКН) ᠍  ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠡᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠨᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[33] 1965 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠶᠢᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠍ ᠢ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭᠠᠳ (ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤ?[34][35]), ᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ИКН ᠰᠡᠬᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃[36][37][38] ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠧᠨᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠰᠤᠬᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠣ 1968 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 3 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠳᠡᠪᠰᠢᠪᠡ᠃ ᠰᠤᠬᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠮᠯᠠᠵᠤᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠳᠬᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[39][40][41] ᠰᠤᠬᠠᠷᠲᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[25][42][43] ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠩᠭᠤᠶᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠥᠷᠭᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠴᠠᠢ᠃[25][44][45]

1997 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[46] 1998 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯ᠂ ᠦᠢᠮᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠮᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠤᠬᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠ᠃[47] ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳ 25 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ 1999 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠮᠣᠷ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠨᠢᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠭᠤᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳᠤᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[48] ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠰᠤᠬᠠᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋ ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠵᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠤᠰᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠪᠤᠯ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠴᠧᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠩ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠯᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠢᠭ᠍ᠰᠡᠨ᠃[49]

ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ

ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠵᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠮᠡᠯ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠭᠤᠴᠢᠭᠠᠳ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠬᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠣ 1998 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1998-2001 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[50] ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ᠂ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠩᠭᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ᠃ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠵᠠᠢ᠃[51] ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ 5 ᠵᠢᠯ᠂ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃[52]

ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ (АЗХ᠂ People's Consultative Assembly) ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ АЗХ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃[53] ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ 560 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ (ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ᠂ People's Representative Council), 132 ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ (ОНТЗ, Regional Representative Council)[54] ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠵᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ (ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ) ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ᠂ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[55] 1998 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[56] ОНТЗ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠪ ᠵᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[57]

ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠲᠠᠢ᠃

  • I ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ (ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ provinsi) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ 33 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃
  • II ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (kota - ᠺᠣᠲ᠋ᠠ) ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ (kabupaten - ᠺᠠᠫᠦᠶᠢᠪᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠨ) ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
  • III ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ kecamatan ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠲᠡᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠴᠤ ᠰᠣᠨᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠺᠧᠴᠢᠮᠠᠲᠠᠨ
    ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠭᠠᠯᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠢᠵᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠡ᠃ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠴᠢᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

33 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ * ᠍ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠪᠡ᠃

ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 10 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ

ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 6 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ

ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ 3 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ

ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 4 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ

ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠸᠧᠰᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 6 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ

ᠮᠠᠯᠤᠤᠶᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ 2 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ

ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 2 ᠮᠤᠵᠢ

ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠥ᠃ᠥ᠃ 11°ᠬ᠃ᠥ᠃ 6°ᠽ᠃ᠤ᠃ 95° – 141° ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠺᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ 17,508 ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ 6 ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃[58] ᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ (ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠶᠢᠽ᠂ ᠪᠷᠦᠨᠧᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ), ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ (ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ-ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠠᠭ), ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠸᠧᠰᠢ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮ ᠢ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ-ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠲᠢᠮᠣᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠮᠣᠷᠲᠣᠢ ᠬᠢᠯᠢ ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠠᠫᠦᠷᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠹᠢᠯᠢᠫᠫᠢᠨᠫᠠᠯᠤᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠤᠰᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠶᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠ. ᠵᠠᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠪᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠷᠠᠪᠠᠶᠠᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠤᠩᠮᠧᠳᠠᠨᠰᠧᠮᠠᠷᠠᠩ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[59]

1,919,440 ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠯᠵᠢᠨ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ km ᠳᠦ 134 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠂ 79 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠢᠭᠢᠭᠦᠦᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠤᠮᠰᠠᠨᠵᠡᠢ᠃[60][61] ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠪᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ km ᠳᠦ 940 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[62] ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠫᠦᠨᠴᠠᠺ ᠵᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠭᠢᠯ (ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ 4884 ᠮ), ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ 1,145 ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ2 ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠪᠠ ᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠢᠬᠠᠺᠠᠮᠪᠠᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[63]

ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠤᠯᠠᠯᠠᠰ

ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠠᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠧᠺᠳᠤᠨᠢᠺ ᠬᠠᠪᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠭ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠴᠤ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠦᠢᠳ ᠬᠢᠵᠦ ᠠᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠷᠠᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠤᠠᠲᠠᠩᠪᠤᠷᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ 150 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠵᠢᠳᠡᠭ᠃[64] ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠬᠠᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠤᠤᠲᠤ ᠽᠸᠨᠠᠮᠢ 167,736 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠵᠤ[65], 2006 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠭᠢᠺᠠᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ 5,782 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠦᠬᠦᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠭᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠬᠠᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠦᠷᠡᠵᠢᠯ ᠰᠢᠮᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃[66]

ᠡᠺᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠲᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠠᠷᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠰᠬᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠬᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ 1,780–3,175 ᠮᠢᠯᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ᠂ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 6,100 ᠮᠢᠯᠯᠢᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠤᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ᠂ ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ᠂ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠸᠧᠰᠢ᠂ ᠫᠠᠫᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤᠭ᠃ ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠴᠢᠭᠢᠭᠯᠢᠭ᠂ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 80%. ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠮᠠᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ 26–30 °C ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ᠃[67]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ: ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ
ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠯ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠤ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ

2010 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ 237.6 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ᠂[1] ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ 1.9% ᠍ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠥᠰᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[68] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 58% ᠨᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ[62] ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃[1] ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ 1960 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ 2020 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 265 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ᠂ 2050 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ 306 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[69]

ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ 742 ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ 300 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃[70][71] ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠᠨᠢ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠲᠠᠬᠤᠶᠢᠴᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠣᠨᠧᠽ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠮᠧᠯᠢᠨᠧᠽ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[59][72] ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 42% ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[73] ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠤᠩᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢᠮᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠰᠢᠭ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠥᠨ 8 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ 5 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠠ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠵᠤ ᠣᠴᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠲᠤ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠣᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠦᠦ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦᠷᠬᠡᠦ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠳ "ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ" [ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ] ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠦᠮᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠰᠡᠳᠬᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[74] ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠪ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ᠂ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[75][76][77] ᠡᠨᠳᠡᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠯᠡᠩ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠯᠢᠶᠡᠳ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠮᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠫᠦᠰᠡ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠳᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ[78][79] ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠰᠡᠵᠢᠭᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠭᠦᠶᠢᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠣᠳᠣᠯᠳᠤᠵᠤ ᠨᠢᠳᠦᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠳ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃[80][81][82]

ᠵᠣᠬᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠴᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨᠢᠭᠢ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠩᠭᠠᠫᠦᠷᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠋ᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠪᠷᠦᠨᠧᠢ᠂ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ (Bahasa Indonesia) ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠯᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠂ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ᠂ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠰᠣᠨᠣᠰᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠯᠠ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ 742 ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠵᠢ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠡᠶᠢᠭ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ᠃[83] ᠫᠠᠫᠦ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ 2.7 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠮᠥᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷ [ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ᠂ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠣᠨᠧᠽ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ] 242 ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃[84]

ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ ᠤᠨ «ᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠺᠯᠢᠯ» ᠯᠠᠯᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ

ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠩ ᠳᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ[85] ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭᠬᠢᠨᠳᠦᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠺᠥᠩᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[86] 2000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ 86.1% ᠨᠢ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠩᠨᠢ ᠳᠢᠭ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠢᠩᠭᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡᠲᠡᠨ (ᠬᠣᠲᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ) ᠍ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[83] ᠬᠢᠨᠳᠦ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ.[87] ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠨ ᠪᠢᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠬᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠂ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠯᠠ ᠨᠡᠪᠴᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠷᠮᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 13 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠᠳ᠋ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳ 16 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠣᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[88] ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠺᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠯᠢᠭ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ᠂ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ[89][90] ᠪᠣᠯ ᠫᠷᠣᠲ᠋ᠧᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠳᠧᠷᠯᠠᠨ᠋ᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠠᠯᠸᠢᠨᠴᠢ᠂ ᠯᠦᠲ᠋ᠧᠷᠠᠨᠴᠢ ᠨᠣᠮᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠤᠮᠰᠠᠨᠵᠡᠢ᠃[91][92][93]

ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠣᠮᠣᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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