ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠭᠣᠶᠣᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠮᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠴᠤᠳ

ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠᠡᠶᠢᠨ 242 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠢᠰᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ 300 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[1] ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢ 95% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ᠂ 5% ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ᠂ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃[2]

ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 41% ᠍ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠬᠦ 86 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[3] ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠷᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠤᠩᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢᠮᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠪᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠺ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠪᠤᠭ ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠴᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃[3] ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠣᠨᠧᠽ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠢᠵᠠᠭᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠫᠠᠫᠦ ᠲᠤ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡᠬᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠡᠴᠡᠭᠦᠦ᠃ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠬᠤᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠧᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨᠴᠢᠷᠧᠪᠣᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠂ ᠪᠠᠳᠤᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠩᠳᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠯᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠴᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠥᠷᠥᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠦ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠸᠧᠰᠢᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠦᠢᠷᠡᠮᠡᠭ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠤᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠦᠨᠡᠨ᠃

ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠪᠢᠨᠳᠣ (ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠯᠢᠵᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠯᠢᠵᠠ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠲᠡᠢ), ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ XV ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠂ XVIII-19 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠨ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3.7% (7.7 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ) ᠍ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠯᠠ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠰᠯᠠᠮ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

2000 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠦᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠣᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ
ᠵᠢᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 86.012 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 41.7% ᠲᠥᠪ ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠢᠭᠢᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠠᠮᠫᠦᠨ
ᠰᠤᠩᠳᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 31.765 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 15.4% ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠪᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠧᠨᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠠᠮᠫᠦᠨ
ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 8.789 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 4.1% ᠰᠤᠮᠠᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨᠠᠲᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ (ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠᠷᠢᠤᠷᠢᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ
ᠵᠠᠮᠪᠢᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠ), ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ
ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ 7.776 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 3.7% ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ
ᠮᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 6.807 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 3.3% ᠮᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ
ᠪᠠᠲ᠋ᠠᠺ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 6.188 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ 3.0% ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠ
ᠪᠤᠯᠭᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 6.000 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 2.9% ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠸᠧᠰᠢᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ
ᠮᠢᠨᠠᠩᠺᠠᠪᠤᠸᠠ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 5.569 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 2.7% ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠮᠤᠲᠷᠠᠷᠢᠤ
ᠪᠧᠲ᠋ᠠᠪᠢ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 5.157 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 2.5% ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠪᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠧᠨᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ
ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ 5.000 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 2.4% ᠵᠠᠺᠠᠷᠲ᠋ᠠᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠲᠥᠪ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ
ᠪᠠᠩᠵᠢᠷ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 4.800 ᠰᠠᠶ᠎ᠠ 2.3% ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠯᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠧᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 4.331 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 2.1% ᠪᠠᠩᠲ᠋ᠧᠨᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ
ᠠᠴᠧ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 4.000 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 1.9% ᠠᠴᠧ
ᠪᠠᠯ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 3.094 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 1.5% ᠪᠠᠯᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠡᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷᠠ
ᠰ ᠠᠴᠠᠺ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 3.000 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 1.4% ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢᠰᠤ ᠲᠡᠩ ᠢᠶᠠᠷᠠ
ᠮᠠᠺᠠᠰᠰᠠᠷ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 2.063 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 1.0% ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠤᠯᠠᠸᠧᠰᠢ
ᠴᠢᠷᠧᠪᠣᠨ ᠶᠠᠰᠤᠲᠠᠨ 1.856 ᠰᠠᠶ᠋ᠢ 0.9% ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠪᠠᠲᠥᠪ ᠵᠢᠪᠠ
ᠢᠨᠳᠥᠶᠢᠨᠧᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠭᠤᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ᠃ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠲᠤ ᠳᠦᠷᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠃

ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Kuoni - Far East, A world of difference. Page 88. Published 1999 by Kuoni Travel & JPM Publications
  2. Pribumi. Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Macmillan Reference USA. 2006-10-05 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. 3.0 3.1 (2003) Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 

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