ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ

ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠥᠪᠦᠷᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠪ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ
ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ 1585
ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 1944, 1994
ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡᠨ
(ᠣᠴᠢᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡᠨ)
ᠶᠣᠰᠣ᠂ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ
ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ-ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ᠃
ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ-ᠵᠤᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ "ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ"

ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠪᠦᠷᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠮᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠵᠠᠭᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠥᠪ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠬᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠨᠳᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1580 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠪ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ᠂ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠩᠬᠡᠨ ᠨᠣᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠭᠤᠲᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠯᠠᠮᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠵᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ 1585 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ[1] ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ ᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠠᠮᠲᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠮᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠬᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[2]

ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ 1586-1674 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠ ᠷᠣᠭᠰᠦᠮ ᠭᠣᠮᠪᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ III ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩ-ᠣᠳᠰᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 4 ᠥᠨᠴᠥᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠬᠠᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ 1680 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠥᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠷᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 18  ᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1701-1705 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠣᠴᠢᠷᠳᠠᠷᠢ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠢᠳᠠ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ᠂ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1771 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ 1792 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠳᠤᠭᠠᠩ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠠᠮᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ 7 ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠭᠪᠠᠳᠠᠷᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1796 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠭᠪᠠᠳᠠᠷᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠠᠮᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠵᠤ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠶᠦᠩ ᠳᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠫᠦᠰᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ 1796 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠴᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠯᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠮ  ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ 50 ᠰᠢᠷᠬᠡᠭ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1802-1813 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠪᠤᠶᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠳ᠂ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠵᠢ᠂ ᠪᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡ᠂ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ᠂ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠥᠩᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠪᠰᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠨᠡᠮᠡᠵᠦ 56 ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠮ ᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ 1803 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠰᠴᠣᠶᠢᠯᠢᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠭᠠᠩ᠂ 1826 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠣᠮᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ᠂ ᠵᠠᠩᠴᠢᠪᠯᠢᠩ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠭᠠᠩ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃[1] ᠡᠶᠢᠨᠬᠦᠦ 1872 ᠣᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ 62 ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠴᠣᠭᠴᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠭᠣᠷᠢᠮ ᠲᠡᠳᠦᠶᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠢᠷᠲᠢᠨᠴᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠴᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠤᠭ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠭᠡᠷ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠥᠰᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠭᠤᠶᠤᠪᠠᠰᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠭᠣᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠰᠬᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃

ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ 102 ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠡᠷ[3]ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ 100 ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠂ 2 ᠨᠢ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠠᠯᠳᠠᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠨᠢ 108 ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂[4] ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠷᠢᠬᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠱᠢᠷᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ 108 ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ[5]

1939 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠨᠢᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠯᠤ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠣᠶᠢᠪᠠᠯᠰᠠᠩᠭᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠢᠩᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠢᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠬᠢᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ[6][7][8] ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠰᠤᠪᠤᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠯᠠ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠦᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ 1947 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠦᠽᠧᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠢᠣᠰᠢᠹ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠯᠢᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠤᠰᠠᠳᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠡᠯᠴᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ 1944 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠳ᠋ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠬᠦᠷᠢ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠸᠣᠯᠯᠧᠰ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠲᠡᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃[9]

ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ-ᠵᠤᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠮᠦᠽᠧᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠭᠠᠨᠳᠠᠩᠳᠦᠭᠴᠢᠩᠯᠢᠩ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠴᠦ 1990 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠮᠮᠤᠶᠢᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠤᠨᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠥᠭᠴᠦ᠂ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ-ᠵᠤᠤ ᠠᠬᠢᠨ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠲᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠷᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃[10] ᠥᠨᠥᠳᠥᠷ ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ-ᠵᠤᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠤᠳ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠾᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠮᠦᠽᠧᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠯᠣᠭᠠᠢ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠵᠤ᠂ ᠰᠠᠨᠸᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠯᠴᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃[11]

ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠯᠠᠪᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 ᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ-ᠵᠤᠤ ᠬᠡᠶᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ. ᠥᠪᠦᠷᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠢ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠮᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ. 2008-06-11 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  2. Karakorum. Culture Mongolia. 2007-03-12 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  3. Image:ErdeneZuuMonasteryMongolia.JPG
  4. Snipe, Lynn "Jnana". Buddhism in the Numbers. Urban Dharma. 2007-03-12 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  5. Niels Gutschow, Andreas Brandt, Die Baugeschichte der Klosteranlage von Erdeni Joo (Erdenezuu), in Claudius Müller (ed.), Dschingis Khan und seine Erben, Bonn 2005, p.353
  6. http://www.ciaonet.org/atlas/countries/mn_data_loc.html#a6
  7. "Dalai Lama's visit shines spotlight on Mongolia's explosion of faiths", USA Todays.com, 2006-08-24. 2007-03-12 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 
  8. Terror Years. Issue 6. Mongolia Today. 2007-03-12 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  9. Kollmar-Paulenz, Karénina (2003). "Buddhism in Mongolia After 1990". Journal of Global Buddhism 4: 18–34. Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  10. ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ: ᠸᠧᠷᠨᠦ᠋ᠲ ᠵᠢᠰᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠨᠡᠰᠲ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠷᠶᠤ
  11. Kharakhorum (Karakorum). Sights of Interest in Mongolia. Legend Tour. 2007-03-12 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠬᠡᠯᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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