ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠬᠢᠵᠠᠭᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠨᠥᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠴᠡᠭᠡ᠂ ᠱᠠᠭᠠᠷᠳᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠬᠢᠨ ᠶᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢᠵᠤ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠲᠠ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ  ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ᠂ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠨᠢ oikos (ᠭᠡᠷ) ᠪᠠ nomos (ᠳᠦᠷᠢᠮ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ), ᠪᠤᠶᠤ "ᠭᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠷᠧᠺ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠳᠠᠮ ᠰᠸᠮᠢᠰ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠴᠢᠭᠡ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠂ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ‍(The Wealth of Nations 国富论) ᠪᠤᠶᠤ "ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ" ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠃

ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠲᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠲᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠢ ᠴᠤ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠢ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ 1776 ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠳᠠᠮ ᠰᠮᠢᠲ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠰᠮᠢᠲ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠰᠡᠳᠦᠪ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ:

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠦᠰᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠪᠠᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠲᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠰᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠠᠮᠢ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠬᠤ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃

ᠰᠮᠢᠲ ᠨᠢ 'ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ' ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠂ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ 1870 ᠤᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ "ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠰᠢᠯ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣ᠋ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣ᠋ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠢᠽᠢᠨ᠋ᠧᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠩ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠮᠰᠠᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠴᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠠᠳᠠ ᠲᠤᠯᠭᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠮᠢᠺᠷᠣ᠋ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ᠂ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠩᠴᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠯᠦᠦ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠭᠡᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ:ᠫᠦᠰᠡ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠰᠠᠩᠬᠦᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ

ᠮᠠᠺᠷᠣ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠮᠠᠺᠷᠣ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠬᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠯᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠢᠶᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠢ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠪᠡᠯ᠂ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠴᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠮᠠᠺᠷᠣ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠭᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠨᠥᠭᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠮᠧᠬᠠᠨᠢᠰᠮ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠣᠪᠴᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ:ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠭᠦᠶᠢᠳᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ᠃..

ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠮᠢᠴᠡ ᠣᠨᠴᠠᠯᠢᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠬᠢᠯᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠮᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠬᠤᠯᠠ ᠵᠦᠢᠯᠡᠰ ᠢ

ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠭᠧᠣᠮᠡᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠦᠷᠨᠢᠬᠦ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠢᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠣᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠨᠠᠷᠢᠪᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨᠣᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠮᠵᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠶᠣᠰᠣ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠬᠤᠨ ᠪᠠ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠭᠡᠮ ᠳᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠨᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡ


ᠮᠥᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Frontiers in Economics - ed. K. F. Zimmermann, Springer-Science, 2002. - A summary of surveys on different areas in economics.
  • The Autistic Economist - Yale Economic Review - How and why the dismal science embraces theory over reality.
  • Nature of Things by Jean-Baptiste Say - an essay in which Say claims that economics is not an ethical system that one can simply refute on the basis that one does not accept its values: it is a collection of theories and models that explain inductively found principles.

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠸᠢᠭᠮᠧᠳᠢᠶᠠ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠩ:
«ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ»

 ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠢᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠢᠲ᠋ᠦᠶᠢᠲ᠂ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Study resources[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]



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