ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠯ

ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠢ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 30,221,532 ᠺᠦᠸᠠᠳ᠋ ᠺᠢᠯᠣᠮᠧᠲ᠋ᠷ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠷᠭᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ 6.0%, ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ 20.4% [1]). 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ 900,000,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ [2] ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ (ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 14%), 56 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠡᠴᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠪᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠠᠲ᠋ᠯᠠᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠭᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃

ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ 90% ᠨᠢ ᠣᠢ᠂ ᠴᠥᠯ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢ 10% ᠨᠢ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠬᠤᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠷᠠᠮᠵᠢᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠤᠭ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠨᠠᠷᠰᠯᠠᠨᠠᠨᠠᠰᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠬᠣᠪᠣᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2,000 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃

ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠴᠡᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

 
 
Topography of africa.png
ᠰᠠᠨᠰᠠᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ᠃
African continent-en.svg
ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ
ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ:

██ Afroasiatic (Semitic-Hamitic)

██ Austronesian (Malay-Polynesian)

██ Indo-European

██ Khoisan

Niger-Congo:

██ Bantu

██ Central and Eastern Sudanese

██ Central Bantoid

██ Eastern Bantoid

██ Guinean

██ Mande

██ Western Bantoid

Nilo-Saharan:

██ Kanuri

██ Nilotic

██ Songhai

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ᠂ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
(км²)
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
(2009 ᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ) except where noted
ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠰᠢᠯ
(км²)
ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ
ᠳᠣᠷᠣᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ: 6,384,904 316,053,651 49.5
ᠪᠦᠷᠤᠨᠳᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠤᠨᠳᠢ 27,830 8,988,091 322.9 ᠪᠤᠵᠤᠮᠪᠤᠷᠠ
ᠺᠣᠮᠣᠷ ᠺᠣᠮᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ 2,170 752,438 346.7 ᠮᠣᠷᠤᠨᠢ
ᠵᠢᠪᠤᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠵᠢᠪᠤᠲ᠋ᠢ 23,000 516,055 22.4 ᠵᠢᠪᠤᠲ᠋ᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
ᠡᠷᠢᠲᠷᠧᠢ ᠡᠷᠢᠲᠷᠧᠢ 121,320 5,647,168 46.5 ᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠷᠠ
ᠡᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠫ ᠡᠲ᠋ᠢᠣᠫ 1,127,127 85,237,338 75.6 ᠠᠳᠠᠳᠢᠰ-ᠠᠪᠧᠪ
ᠺᠧᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠺᠧᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ 582,650 39,002,772[3] 66.0 ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠣᠪᠢ
ᠮᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠰᠺᠠᠷ ᠮᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠰᠺᠠᠷ 587,040 20,653,556 35.1 ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠨᠠᠨᠠᠷᠪᠠ
ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠸᠸᠢ ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠸᠸᠢ 118,480 14,268,711 120.4 Lilongwe
ᠮᠠᠸᠷᠢᠲᠢ ᠮᠠᠦ᠋ᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠦᠶᠢᠰ 2,040 1,284,264[3] 629.5 Port Louis
ᠮᠠᠶᠣᠲ ᠲᠤ Mayotte (ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ) 374 223,765 489.7 Mamoudzou
ᠮᠣᠽᠠᠮᠪᠢᠺ ᠮᠣᠽᠠᠮᠪᠢᠺ 801,590 21,669,278 27.0 ᠮᠠᠫᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣ
ᠷᠧᠠᠨᠢᠨ ᠷᠧᠠᠨᠢᠨ (ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ) 2,512 743,981(2002) 296.2 ᠰᠧᠨᠲ-ᠳᠧᠨᠢ
ᠷᠤᠸᠠᠩᠳᠠ ᠷᠤᠸᠠᠩᠳᠠ 26,338 10,473,282 397.6 ᠺᠢᠭᠠᠯᠢ
ᠰᠧᠢᠱᠧᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠧᠢᠱᠧᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ 455 87,476 192.2 ᠸᠢᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢ
ᠰᠣᠮᠠᠯᠢᠢ ᠠ ᠰᠣᠮᠠᠯᠢᠢ ᠠ 637,657 9,832,017 15.4 ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠢᠱᠤ
ᠲᠠᠨᠽᠠᠨᠢᠢ ᠠ ᠲᠠᠨᠽᠠᠨᠢᠢ ᠠ 945,087 41,048,532 43.3 ᠳᠣᠳᠣᠮᠠ
ᠤ᠋ᠭᠤᠨᠳᠤ᠋ ᠤ᠋ᠭᠤᠨᠳᠤ᠋ 236,040 32,369,558 137.1 ᠺᠠᠮᠫᠠᠯ
ᠽᠠᠮᠪᠢ ᠽᠠᠮᠪᠢ 752,614 11,862,740 15.7 ᠯᠤᠤᠰᠠᠺᠠ
ᠽᠢᠩᠪᠠᠪᠸᠧ ᠽᠢᠩᠪᠠᠪᠸᠧ 390,580 11,392,629[3] 29.1 ᠬᠠᠷᠷᠧ
ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ: 6,613,253 121,585,754 18.4
ᠠᠩᠭᠡᠯᠠ ᠠᠩᠭᠡᠯᠠ 1,246,700 12,799,293 10.3 ᠯᠤᠸᠠᠩᠳᠠ
ᠺᠠᠮᠧᠷᠦᠨ ᠺᠠᠮᠧᠷᠦᠨ 475,440 18,879,301 39.7 Yaoundé
ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠪ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 622,984 4,511,488 7.2 ᠪᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
ᠴᠢᠳᠠ ᠴᠢᠳᠠ 1,284,000 10,329,208 8.0 N'Djamena
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠺᠣᠩᠭᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠺᠣᠩᠭᠣ 342,000 4,012,809 11.7 ᠪᠷᠠᠽᠽᠠᠸᠢᠯ
ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠩᠭᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠩᠭᠣ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 2,345,410 68,692,542 29.2 ᠺᠢᠨᠱᠠᠰᠠ
ᠡᠺᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠡᠺᠸᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ 28,051 633,441 22.6 ᠮᠠᠯᠠᠪᠣ
ᠭᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠪᠤᠨ 267,667 1,514,993 5.6 ᠯᠢᠪᠷᠧᠸᠢᠯ
ᠰᠠᠨ-ᠲᠣᠮᠧ-ᠫᠷᠢᠨᠰᠢᠫ ᠰᠠᠨᠲᠣᠮᠧ ᠪᠠ ᠫᠷᠢᠨᠰᠢᠫ 1,001 212,679 212.4 ᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠧ
ᠤᠮᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ: 8,533,021 211,087,622 24.7
ᠠᠯᠵᠢᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠠᠯᠵᠢᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ 2,381,740 34,178,188 14.3 ᠠᠯᠵᠢᠷᠢᠶ ᠠ
ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ ᠶᠸᠵᠠᠫᠲ 1,001,450 83,082,869 82.9 ᠺᠠᠢᠷᠣ
ᠯᠢᠪᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠯᠢᠪᠢᠶ ᠠ 1,759,540 6,310,434 3.6 ᠲᠷᠢᠫᠣᠯᠢ
ᠮᠠᠷᠣᠺᠺᠣ ᠮᠠᠷᠣᠺᠺᠣ 446,550 34,859,364 78.0 ᠷᠠᠪᠠᠲ
ᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ 2,505,810 41,087,825 16.4 ᠬᠠᠷᠲᠤᠮ
ᠲᠤᠨᠢᠰ ᠲᠤᠨᠢᠰ 163,610 10,486,339 64.1 ᠲᠤᠨᠢᠰ
ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷᠠ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷᠠ[4] 266,000 405,210 1.5 El Aaiún
ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ:
ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠺᠠᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ (ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ)[5] 7,492 1,694,477(2001) 226.2 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Country data Ceuta Ceuta (ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ)[6] 20 71,505(2001) 3,575.2
ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Country data Madeira Madeira Islands (ᠫᠣᠷᠲ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠯ)[7] 797 245,000(2001) 307.4 Funchal
ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Country data Melilla ᠮᠧᠯᠯᠠᠯ (ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢ)[8] 12 66,411(2001) 5,534.2
ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ: 2,693,418 56,406,762 20.9
ᠪᠣᠽᠡᠸᠠᠨ᠎ ᠠ ᠪᠣᠽᠡᠸᠠᠨ᠎ ᠠ 600,370 1,990,876 3.3 ᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠨᠧ
ᠯᠧᠰᠣᠲ᠋ᠣ᠋ ᠯᠧᠰᠣᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 30,355 2,130,819 70.2 ᠮᠠᠰᠧᠷᠤ
ᠨᠠᠮᠢᠪ ᠨᠠᠮᠢᠪᠢ 825,418 2,108,665 2.6 ᠸᠢᠨᠳᠬᠤᠺ
ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1,219,912 49,052,489 40.2 ᠪᠯᠤᠮᠹᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨᠺᠧᠢᠫᠲ᠋ᠠᠤᠨᠫᠷᠧᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ[9]
ᠰᠪᠠᠽᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠪᠠᠽᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ 17,363 1,123,913 64.7 ᠮᠪᠠᠪᠠᠨᠧ
ᠥᠷᠥᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ: 6,144,013 296,186,492 48.2
ᠪᠧᠨᠢᠨ ᠪᠧᠨᠢᠨ 112,620 8,791,832 78.0 ᠫᠣᠷᠲᠠ-ᠨᠣᠪᠠ
ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠺᠢᠨᠠᠹᠠᠰᠣ᠋ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠺᠢᠨᠠᠹᠠᠰᠣ᠋ 274,200 15,746,232 57.4 Ouagadougou
ᠺᠠᠪᠣ-ᠸᠧᠷᠳᠧ ᠺᠧᠢᠫ ᠸᠧᠷᠳᠧ 4,033 429,474 107.3 ᠫᠠᠷ ᠤᠠ
ᠺᠣᠲ᠋ ᠳ'ᠢᠪᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠺᠣᠲ᠋ ᠳ'ᠢᠪᠤ ᠪᠠᠷ 322,460 20,617,068 63.9 ᠠᠪᠢᠳ᠋ᠵᠠᠨ[10] ᠶᠠᠮᠥᠰᠥᠶᠢᠺᠷᠣ
ᠭᠠᠨᠪᠢ ᠭᠠᠨᠪᠢ 11,300 1,782,893 157.7 ᠪᠠᠨᠵᠤᠯ
ᠭᠠᠨᠠ ᠭᠠᠨᠠ 239,460 23,832,495 99.5 ᠠᠺᠺᠷᠠ
ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ 245,857 10,057,975 40.9 ᠺᠣᠨᠠᠺᠷᠢ
ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶᠠᠪᠢᠰᠤ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶᠠᠪᠢᠰᠤ 36,120 1,533,964 42.5 ᠪᠢᠰᠤ
ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ 111,370 3,441,790 30.9 ᠮᠣᠩᠷᠣᠪᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ
ᠮᠠᠯᠢ ᠮᠠᠯᠢ 1,240,000 12,666,987 10.2 ᠪᠠᠮᠠᠺᠣ
ᠮᠠᠸᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠸᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ 1,030,700 3,129,486 3.0 ᠨᠢᠠᠺᠱᠣᠲ
ᠨᠢᠭᠧᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠧᠷ 1,267,000 15,306,252 12.1 ᠨᠢᠮᠧᠢ
ᠨᠢᠭᠧᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ ᠨᠢᠭᠧᠷᠢᠢ ᠠ 923,768 149,229,090 161.5 ᠠᠪᠦᠷᠠ
ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ:Country data Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha ᠰᠧᠨᠲ ᠬᠧᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠᠲᠷᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠳᠠ ᠺᠦᠶᠢᠨᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ) 410 7,637 14.4 ᠵᠡᠮᠰᠲ᠋ᠠᠤᠨ
ᠰᠧᠨ᠋ᠸᠭᠠᠯ ᠰᠧᠨ᠋ᠸᠭᠠᠯ 196,190 13,711,597 69.9 ᠳᠠᠺᠠᠷ
ᠱᠢᠯᠠᠯᠧᠣᠨᠧ ᠱᠢᠯᠠᠯᠧᠣᠨᠧ 71,740 6,440,053 89.9 ᠹᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠤᠨ
ᠲᠣᠭᠣ ᠲᠣᠭᠣ 56,785 6,019,877 106.0 ᠯᠣᠮᠧ
ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 30,368,609 1,001,320,281 33.0

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

1913 ᠣᠨ

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ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠭᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Sayre, April Pulley. (1999) Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  2. "World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision" ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, population division)
  3. ᠣᠷᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠄ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ <ref> ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠄ name ᠶ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠨᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ uscen ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠋ᠳ᠋ᠥ ᠦᠰᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠨᠭᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ
  4. ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨ 46 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠧ ᠹᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣ ᠮᠠᠷᠣᠺᠺᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ 1 ᠤᠯᠤᠰ: ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠬᠠᠷᠠᠪᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ</small>
  5. The Spanish Canary Islands, of which Las Palmas de Gran Canaria are Santa Cruz de Tenerife are co-capitals, are often considered part of Northern Africa due to their relative proximity to Morocco and Western Sahara; population and area figures are for 2001.
  6. The Spanish exclave of Ceuta is surrounded on land by Morocco in Northern Africa; population and area figures are for 2001.
  7. The Portuguese Madeira Islands are often considered part of Northern Africa due to their relative proximity to Morocco; population and area figures are for 2001.
  8. The Spanish exclave of Melilla is surrounded on land by Morocco in Northern Africa; population and area figures are for 2001.
  9. ᠪᠯᠤᠮᠹᠣᠨᠲ᠋ᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ , ᠺᠧᠢᠫᠲ᠋ᠠᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠫᠷᠧᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ᠃
  10. ᠶᠠᠮᠥᠰᠥᠶᠢᠺᠷᠣ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠠᠪᠢᠳ᠋ᠵᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠧ ᠹᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠣ .
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