ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠭᠠᠷᠠᠢ᠃

ᠠᠷᠠᠪ (ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ: عرب‎, ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ) ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠬᠣᠶᠢᠲᠤ ᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠᠠᠹᠷᠢᠺᠠᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠡᠭᠡᠷᠡ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯᠱᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠯᠭᠡᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠤᠭ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠭᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠢᠲᠠᠳ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠡᠲᠦ ᠤᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠤᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠪ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠷ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ

ᠰᠣᠶᠣᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

12 ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ

ᠤᠷᠠᠯᠢᠭ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠷᠬᠢᠲ᠋ᠧᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠯᠢᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠭᠤ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢ ᠬᠠᠯᠢᠯ ᠵᠢᠪᠷᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠷᠦᠭ
]]

ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Y-ᠾᠷᠣᠮᠰᠣᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠬᠡ ᠾᠷᠣᠮᠰᠣᠮ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠾᠷᠣᠮᠰᠣᠮ ᠤᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠡᠬᠢ ᠰᠤᠷᠪᠤᠯᠵᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠬᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  • Price-Jones, David. The Closed Circle: an Interpretation of the Arabs. Pbk. ed., with a new preface by the author. Chicago: I. R. Dee, 2002. xiv, 464 p. ISBN 1-56663-440-7 pbk
  • Ankerl, Guy. Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INU PRESS, Geneva, 2000. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

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