ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ
«ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ» ᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠳᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠰᠤ ᠶᠢ «ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ)» ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃
ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡ
ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ
 -  ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ II ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠺᠸᠡᠩᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠪᠷᠠᠶᠢᠰ
 -  ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠲᠣᠨᠢ ᠡᠪᠪᠦᠲ
ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ
 -  ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠲᠠᠯᠠᠪᠠᠢ 7,617,930 km2 
ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ (2012) 22,879,700 (52)
 -  ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠯᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ (2006) 19,855,288 
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠲᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠡᠶᠢᠷᠡᠭ 2.8 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ/km2 
GDP (ХАЧТ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $914.482 ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ 18  ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $40,234 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠨ ᠠᠪᠬᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠲᠡᠭᠰᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ12 ᠳᠦ
GDP (ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ) 2011 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ
 -  ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ $1.488 ᠲᠷᠢᠯᠯᠢᠣᠨ  ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠬᠦᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ13 ᠳᠦ
 -  ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠨᠳᠦ $65,477 ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠨᠣᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ GDP  ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠡᠢ ᠳᠦ5]])
Gini (2006) 30.5 (ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠴᠢ
ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠢᠨᠳᠧᠺᠰ (2011) 0.929 (ᠮᠠᠰᠢ ᠥᠨᠳᠥᠷ) (2)
ᠮᠥᠩᠭᠥᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ (AUD)
ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ UTC+8 ᠍ ᠰ +10.5
ᠤᠲᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ +61

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Australia)᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ Commonwealth of Australia)ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠢᠪᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠨᠢᠱᠢᠶ ᠠᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠢᠮᠣᠷᠫᠠᠫᠦᠠ-ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠸᠨᠢᠶ ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠣᠯᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠸᠧᠨᠧᠰᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠺᠠᠯᠧᠳᠣᠨᠢ (ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ)᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠸᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲᠤ᠋ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠨ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠢ ᠡᠵᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠴᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠭᠴᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ (ᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠭᠧᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ) 4.2 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠰᠤᠴᠢᠳ ᠬᠠᠶᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠵᠦ᠂ 1606 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠢ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ 1770 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ)ᠴᠤᠳ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1788 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 1 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 26 ᠍ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ ᠤᠨ (New South Wales) ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ) ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠠᠪᠴᠢᠷᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠥᠰᠴᠤ᠂ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ 19 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ᠂ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠲᠢᠲᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃

1901 ᠣᠨ ᠤ 1 ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠴᠦ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠠᠢ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ (Australian Capital Territory, ACT) ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠷᠤᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠪᠧᠷᠷᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠨᠢ 2130 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 60% ᠨᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠢᠳᠡᠨᠢᠮᠧᠯᠪᠦᠷᠨᠪᠷᠢᠰᠪᠡᠨᠫᠧᠷᠲᠦᠠᠳᠧᠯᠢᠳ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠪᠯᠡᠷᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠢᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠵᠡᠺᠰᠣᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ᠃ (A Voyage to Terra Australis ᠍ ᠰ᠃)

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ Australis ᠪᠤᠶᠤ "ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ "ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠯᠦ ᠲᠠᠨᠢᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ" ᠍ ᠤᠨ (terra australis incognita) ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠳᠣᠮᠣᠭ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠡᠷᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠷᠣᠮᠠ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶᠡᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠦᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠮᠠᠷ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠮᠲᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1521 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠰᠫᠠᠨᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ "Australia" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1625 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠠᠮᠤᠡᠯ ᠫᠦᠷᠴᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ Hakluytus Posthumus ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ "A note of Australia del Espiritu Santo, written by Master Hakluyt" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ [1] ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠲᠡᠮᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ Australische ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠠᠪᠢᠶᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠨᠡᠳᠬᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠮᠫᠠᠨᠢ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ 1638 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠦᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠠᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 1676 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠷᠠᠨᠼᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠴᠢ ᠭᠠᠪᠷᠢᠶᠡᠯᠳᠡ ᠹᠦᠠᠨᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ (ᠵᠠᠺ ᠰᠳᠦᠷ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ) ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠭᠤᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ "Australia" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃[2] ᠠᠯᠧᠺᠰᠠᠨᠳᠧᠷ ᠳᠠᠯᠤᠷᠢᠮᠫᠯ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢ An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (1771) ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠲᠡᠷᠡ ᠴᠢᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠵᠦ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 1793 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠵᠢ ᠱᠣᠣᠪᠠ ᠰᠡᠷᠡ ᠵᠡᠮᠰ ᠰᠮᠢᠲ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠠᠰᠤᠷᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠠᠽᠢ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ Zoology and Botany of New Holland ᠨᠣᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠮᠡᠲᠦᠲᠶᠤ ᠹᠯᠤᠶᠢᠨᠳᠧᠷᠰ ᠦᠨ 1814 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ A Voyage to Terra Australis ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ "Australia" ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠦᠭᠡᠮᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠹᠯᠤᠶᠢᠨᠳᠧᠷᠰ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠷᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ "Australia" ᠭᠡᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠨᠣᠮ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠤᠩᠰᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠴᠢᠷ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠲᠣᠮᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠷ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠳᠡ ᠨᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠯᠠᠺᠯᠠᠨ ᠮᠠᠺᠺᠦ᠋ᠷᠢ ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1817 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 12 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃[3] 1824 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠠᠮᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ "Australia" ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠰᠢᠶᠡᠷᠡᠴᠡᠢ᠃

ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 4.2-4.8 ᠲᠦᠮᠡᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃[4] ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠪᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠲᠡᠳᠡ ᠥᠨᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠢ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠦᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠦ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠮᠠᠭᠠᠳᠯᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠂ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠲᠦᠵᠦ᠂ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠳᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠲᠡᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠣᠶᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠵᠦᠢᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ᠂ ᠠᠩ ᠠᠩᠨᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠵᠢᠮᠢᠰ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠵᠦ ᠠᠮᠢᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃
ᠵᠡᠮᠰ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ 1770 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ HM Bark Endeavour ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡ ᠣᠩᠭᠣᠴᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠯᠠᠨ᠂ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠩᠬᠠᠭᠯᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠭᠪᠤᠷ ᠢ 1988 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠹᠷᠢᠮᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠰᠬᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺᠲ᠋ᠠᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠠᠪᠴᠠᠢ᠃

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠸᠢᠯᠯᠧᠮ ᠶᠠᠨᠰᠵᠣᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ 1606 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠢᠶᠢᠫ ᠢᠣᠷᠺ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠳᠣᠯᠤᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠬᠤᠯᠯᠠᠨᠲ᠋᠌᠋᠌᠌᠌ᠴᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠱᠤᠭᠤᠮ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠳᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠭᠲᠣ ᠬᠢᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1770 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠡᠮᠰ ᠺᠦ᠋ᠺ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ᠂ ᠵᠢᠷᠤᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠷᠡᠶᠢᠳᠴᠦ᠂ ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠯᠲᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠡᠨᠳᠡ ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠦᠯᠬᠢᠴᠡ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠦᠯ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃

1812 ᠣᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯᠡᠬᠢ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠳ

██ 1606 Willem Janszoon

██ 1606 Luis Váez de Torres

██ 1616 Dirk Hartog

██ 1619 Frederick de Houtman

██ 1644 Abel Tasman

██ 1696 Willem de Vlamingh

██ 1699 William Dampier

██ 1770 James Cook

██ 1797–1799 George Bass

██ 1801–1803 Matthew Flinders

1788 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 26 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠬᠠᠮᠠᠳ ᠠᠷᠲᠤᠷ ᠹᠢᠯᠯᠢᠫ ᠫᠣᠷᠲ ᠵᠡᠺᠰᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ  ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠲᠤᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠢᠯᠡ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠸᠠᠩ ᠳᠡᠶᠢᠮᠧᠨ ᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ 1803 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠵᠤ᠂ 1825 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ 1829 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠡᠵᠡᠮᠰᠢᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠦᠳ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠡᠭᠦᠰᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: 1836 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ 1851 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠸᠢᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠪᠠᠨ᠂ 1859 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠣᠶᠢᠨᠰᠯᠡᠨᠳᠦ᠋ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ 1911 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠂ "ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ" ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠡᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠴᠤ ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠯᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠦᠩᠭᠡᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠸᠢᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠪᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠴᠤ "ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ" ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠢ ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠠᠯᠠᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠯᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠠᠪᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃[5] ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠳᠡᠯᠯᠡᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯ ᠥᠷᠨᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ᠂ 1848 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠶᠠᠯᠠᠲᠠᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠣᠭᠰᠣᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ ᠠ᠃[6]

ᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲᠤ ᠠᠷᠤᠳᠤᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠥᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠭᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠬᠤ ᠠᠩᠭᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ 35 ᠲᠦᠮᠡ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ[7] ᠨᠢ ᠧᠦᠢᠷᠣᠫᠠᠴᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢᠬᠢ 150 ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠭᠵᠣᠮ ᠬᠤᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠭᠡᠪᠡᠯ ᠬᠠᠯᠳᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠲᠤ ᠡᠪᠡᠳᠴᠢᠨ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠳᠠᠮᠠᠯ ᠨᠡᠭᠦᠯᠭᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠳᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃[8] ᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠯᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠡᠦᠬᠡᠳ ᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠰᠠᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠠᠰᠠ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠦᠯᠦᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠵᠤ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠨ᠎ ᠡ᠃ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠰᠤᠳᠤᠯᠤᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ᠂ ᠦᠵᠡᠯ ᠰᠤᠷᠲᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠯᠲᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠲᠦᠷᠡᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠮᠠᠷᠭᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠃[9] ᠡᠨᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠬᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ 1967 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠤᠭᠠᠯ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠵᠦ᠂ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

2005 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠥᠷᠪᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 25 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠸᠢᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠪᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠣᠷᠲᠤ ᠮᠧᠯᠪᠦᠷᠨ ᠳᠤ АНЗАК ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ "ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠤᠳᠠᠨ" ᠲᠣᠭᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠷᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠤᠭ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ᠂ ᠳᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃

1850 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠯᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 1854 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠯᠢᠼᠧᠨᠽᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠪᠡᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠺᠡᠢᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠰᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠰᠡᠷᠭᠦᠴᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠢᠯᠡᠷᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1855-1890 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠰᠡᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠯᠣᠨᠳᠣᠨ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ᠂ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠠᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1901 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 1 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠲᠡ᠂ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠴᠦᠰ ᠲᠦ ᠺᠣᠯᠣᠨᠢ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠳᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠪᠧᠷᠷᠠᠭ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠢ (ᠬᠣᠵᠢᠮ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ) 1911 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ (1901-1927 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠺᠠᠨᠪᠧᠷᠷᠠᠭ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠮᠧᠯᠪᠦᠷᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠯ᠎ᠠ)᠃ 1911 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠢᠨᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠯᠵᠢᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[10] ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠴᠤᠳ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠽᠧᠨᠯᠠᠨᠳ᠋ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ ᠮᠠᠲᠸᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯ (АНЗАК) ᠭᠠᠯᠯᠢᠫᠣᠯᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠤᠯᠤᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠰ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠺᠣᠺᠣᠳᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠮ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠍ ᠢ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠢ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠳᠠᠯᠢᠳᠬᠠᠨ ᠦᠵᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

1931 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠸᠡᠰᠲᠦᠮᠢᠨᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠭᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠨᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ 1942 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠨ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠤᠷᠤᠭᠤ ᠤᠬᠤᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠠᠯᠪᠢᠵᠤ᠂ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 1942 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠠᠬᠢ ᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠶᠠᠫᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠵᠡᠨᠲᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠶᠤᠯ ᠵᠠᠨᠤᠯ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠦᠵᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠷᠴᠡᠢ᠃ 1951 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ Australia᠂ New Zealand᠂ United States ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠍ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠬᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 1970 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠳᠣᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠴᠤᠴᠠᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠧᠦ᠋ᠷᠣᠫᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠲᠢᠪ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠢᠷᠡᠬᠦ ᠴᠠᠭᠠᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠦᠬᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠵᠦᠢ᠂ ᠰᠤᠶᠤᠯ᠂ ᠳᠦᠷᠢ ᠲᠥᠷᠬᠥ ᠥᠭᠡᠷᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠰᠢᠨᠡᠴᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠡᠢ᠃ 1986 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ НВУ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣᠬᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠷᠴᠤ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠪᠷᠢᠲ᠋ᠠᠨ(ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ) ᠤ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠰᠬᠠᠵᠤ᠂ НВУ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[11] 1999 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠷᠢᠶᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ 54% ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠶᠢᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠴᠤᠭᠠᠴᠠᠢ᠃ 1972 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠣᠹ ᠸᠢᠲ᠋ᠯᠡᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢᠯᠠᠯᠲᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠲᠠᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠩᠰᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠨᠣ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠭᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠤᠯᠠᠮ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠷᠬᠣ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃

ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠺᠠᠨᠪᠧᠷᠷᠠ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠨ ᠢ 1988 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠢ 1927 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠲᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠷᠢᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠰᠢᠭᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠ᠃

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠧᠮ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ II ᠢᠯᠢᠽᠡᠪᠡᠢᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳ᠋ᠡᠬᠢ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠨᠢ ᠥᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠥᠭᠭᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ᠂ ᠡᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠥᠪᠬᠡᠨ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠵᠢᠱᠢᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠣᠯ 1975 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠸᠢᠲ᠋ᠯᠡᠮ᠎ᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠣᠭᠴᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃[12]

ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭᠠᠬᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ:

  • ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ: ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ᠂ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠬᠦ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠂ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠤᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ ᠦᠢᠯᠡ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃
  • ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ: ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ (ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠤ)᠂ ᠫᠷᠠᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠭᠲᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃
  • ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ: ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠭᠦ ᠨᠦ᠋ᠭᠦᠳ᠃ 1986 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠸᠠᠩᠲᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠳᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠤᠴᠠ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠠᠪᠠᠵᠤ ᠵᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠤᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ᠂ 76 ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ ‍(参议院) ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ (ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ)᠂ 150 ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ (ᠳᠤᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ) ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠦᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠳᠤᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠳ ᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ  ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ ᠤᠳ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠶᠠᠷᠢᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠳᠤᠤᠷᠠᠲᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠪᠤᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲᠲᠤ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ 12 ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ (ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ) ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠨ᠎ᠡ᠃ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠭᠤᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠ ᠶᠠᠪᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ᠋ᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠤᠭᠤᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠠ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠰ ᠨᠢ ᠯᠠ ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠷᠬᠠᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠯ ᠲᠠᠰᠤᠯᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠮᠵᠢᠯᠭᠡ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃

ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠬᠦ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠦᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠭᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠨᠠᠮ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠣᠭᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ᠂ ᠢᠯᠠᠩᠭᠤᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠯᠥᠭᠡᠯᠡᠯ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠴᠢᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ 2007 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ(ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ 3 ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ)᠂ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠺᠡᠪᠢᠨ ᠷᠠᠳᠳᠠᠷ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠺᠠᠨᠪᠧᠷᠷᠠᠳ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ 2008 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠶᠢᠰᠦᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠠᠨ ᠦ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤᠷᠠᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠴᠥᠭᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃ 2004 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠵᠣᠩ ᠬᠣᠪᠠᠷᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠤᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠡᠪᠰᠡᠯ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠨᠢ 20 ᠭᠠᠷᠤᠢ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠩᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠤᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠪᠠᠷᠢᠵᠤ ᠪᠤᠢ ᠨᠠᠮ ᠰᠧᠨᠠᠲ ᠲᠤ ᠣᠯᠠᠩᠬᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠠᠪᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠦᠪᠰᠢᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ 18 ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠭᠰᠢ ᠨᠠᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠰᠠᠨᠠᠯ ᠥᠭᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠳ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠢᠭ᠌ᠰᠠᠭᠠᠯᠳᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠵᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠬᠡᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠶᠣᠰᠣᠲᠠᠢ᠃[13]

ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠵᠢᠷᠭᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠂ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠢ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠳᠪᠠᠯ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰᠺᠣᠶᠢᠨᠰᠯᠡᠨᠳᠦ᠋ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨᠢᠸᠢᠺᠲ᠋ᠣᠷᠢᠪᠠᠨᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠡᠬᠡ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ (АННД) ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠩᠬᠢ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠨ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠰᠢᠭ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠯᠠᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠭᠠᠷᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠠᠯᠢᠪᠠ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 51 ᠍ ᠳᠦᠭᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠰᠡᠭ ᠲᠦ ᠵᠢᠭᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠢ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠬᠦ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠭᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠫᠠᠷᠠᠯᠮᠧᠨᠲ ᠤᠳ ᠦᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ᠂ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ ᠡᠮᠨᠡᠯᠭᠡ᠂ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠰᠤᠷᠠᠯ᠂ ᠴᠠᠭᠳᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠢᠭᠦᠬᠦ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭᠯᠠᠯ᠂ ᠵᠠᠮ᠂ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ᠂ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠴᠢᠭᠯᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ᠂ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠷ ᠥᠪᠡᠷ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ: ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ᠂ ᠺᠣᠶᠢᠨᠰᠯᠡᠨᠲᠦ᠋ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠪᠤᠰᠤᠳ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠢ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠲᠠᠢ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠳ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠨ ᠡᠷᠬᠡ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠡᠷᠬᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠳᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠳᠤᠤᠷᠠᠳᠤ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠰᠰᠧᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ (ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠲᠠᠰᠠᠮᠠᠨᠢᠳ ᠠᠰᠰᠧᠮᠪᠯᠧᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ) ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠲᠠᠩᠬᠢᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠬᠠᠤᠯᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠥᠪᠯᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠨ Premier ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠢ Chief Minister ᠪᠤᠶᠤ ᠠᠬᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠳ ᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠠᠵᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠢ ᠮᠤᠵᠢ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠥᠯᠦᠭᠡᠯᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠳᠮᠢᠨᠢᠰᠲᠷᠠᠲ᠋ᠣᠷ᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠦ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠢᠵᠢᠯ ᠲᠥᠰᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠵᠢᠵᠢᠭ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠦ ᠸᠯᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠵᠧᠷᠸᠢᠰ ᠪᠤᠯᠤᠩ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠤᠰᠬᠠᠢ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠢ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠵᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠣᠭᠣᠮᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠢᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡᠴᠡᠭᠡ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠷᠢᠰᠢᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠦᠳ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: ᠨᠣᠷᠹᠣᠯᠺ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠵᠤᠯᠠ ᠰᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯᠺᠣᠺᠣᠰ (ᠺᠢᠯᠢᠩ ᠢ) ᠠᠷᠠᠯ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠠᠮᠠ ᠣᠷᠣᠰᠢᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃ ᠲᠤᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠪᠠᠯ: ᠡᠰᠢᠮᠣᠷ ᠪᠠ ᠺᠠᠷᠲᠧᠷ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠱᠢᠷᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠬᠡᠷᠲᠦ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠪᠠ ᠮᠠᠺ ᠲᠤᠨᠠᠯᠳᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠨᠲ᠋ᠠᠷᠺᠲ᠋ᠢᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠳᠡᠪᠢᠰᠬᠡᠷ

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠠᠷᠮᠢ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠠᠷᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠸᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲᠤ᠋᠂ ᠠᠮᠸᠷᠢᠺᠠ Australia᠂ New Zealand᠂ United States ᠍ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ᠂ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠭᠦᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠲᠤ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠷᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠴᠠᠭ᠎ ᠠAssociation of South - East Asian Nationsᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠹᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ ᠨᠤᠭᠤᠳ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠨ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠭᠦᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠰᠡᠯ ᠡᠷᠡᠮᠡᠯᠵᠡᠯ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠳᠣᠷᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ 2005 ᠣᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠡᠪ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠯ᠂ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠡᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠡᠯᠰᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠶᠢᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠡᠭᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠮᠵᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠥᠭᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠥᠬᠥᠷᠯᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠷᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠨᠦᠭᠦᠳ ᠦᠨ ᠠᠭᠤᠯᠵᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠹᠣᠷᠣᠮ ᠨᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠯᠢᠪᠧᠷᠠᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠷ ᠡᠷᠴᠢᠮᠲᠡᠢ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠺᠠᠣᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠯᠦᠭ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠠᠽᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ-ᠨᠣᠮᠣᠬᠠᠨ ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠳᠤ ᠮᠠᠩᠯᠠᠶᠢᠯᠠᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃ ᠲᠡᠭᠦᠨᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠲᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠬᠥᠭᠵᠢᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠰᠢᠭᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠷ ᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠡᠳᠦᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ-ᠠᠮᠧᠷᠢᠺᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠬᠤᠳᠠᠯᠳᠤᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷᠰᠢᠨ᠎ ᠡ ᠽᠸᠨᠯᠠᠨᠲᠤ᠋ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠡᠳ᠋ ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠯᠴᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠯᠴᠡᠭᠡᠷ ᠪᠠᠭᠳᠠᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠯᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠪᠤᠯᠬᠤ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠲᠥᠯᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠶᠡᠨ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ 60 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠲᠤᠰᠠᠯᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠦᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ—ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ (ADF)—ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠡᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠦᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ (RAN)᠂ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠮᠢᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠡᠵᠡᠨ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ (RAAF) ᠪᠥᠷᠢᠳᠬᠦ ᠪᠠ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ 51,000 ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠮ ᠪᠡᠶ᠎ᠡ ᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠳᠦᠬᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠢ᠃[14] ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠤᠳ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠳᠦᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠨ ᠪᠥᠰᠡ ᠨᠤᠲᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠮᠤᠷ ᠢ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ(ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠰᠡᠭᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠲᠢᠮᠣᠷᠰᠣᠯᠣᠮᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠠᠷᠠᠯ ᠤᠳᠰᠤᠳᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ)᠂ ᠭᠠᠮᠰᠢᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠦᠷ᠎ᠡ ᠳᠠᠭᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠶᠢ ᠠᠷᠢᠯᠭᠠᠬᠤ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠯᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ᠂ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠮᠥᠷᠭᠥᠯᠳᠦᠭᠡᠨ᠂ ᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷ᠎ᠠ 2003 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠢᠷᠠᠺ ᠤᠨ ᠳᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠣᠷᠣᠯᠴᠠᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠢᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ᠃ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠠᠯᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠣᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠴᠡᠷᠢᠭ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠳᠠᠷᠤᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠮᠠᠷᠱᠠᠯ ᠠᠩᠬᠤᠰ ᠬᠦᠶᠤᠶᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠣᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ 2006–2007 ᠣᠨ ᠤ ᠲᠥᠰᠥᠪ ᠲᠦ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠷᠤᠳᠠᠯ 22&nbsp ᠲᠡᠷᠪᠤᠮ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠳ᠋ᠣᠯᠯᠠᠷ ᠪᠣᠯᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠪᠠ᠃[15] ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠬᠢᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠲᠤᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠠᠮᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠬᠤ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠶᠡᠷᠦᠩᠬᠡᠢ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠨᠳᠠᠯᠠᠭᠴᠢ ᠪᠣᠯᠪᠠᠴᠤ ᠲᠡᠷᠡᠪᠡᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠺᠣᠮᠠᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠴᠡ ᠳᠦ ᠢᠳᠡᠪᠬᠢᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠭᠦᠷᠭᠡ ᠭᠦᠢᠴᠡᠳᠭᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠦᠭᠡᠢ᠂ ᠬᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠦᠢᠰᠲ᠋ᠷᠯᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠳᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠵᠡᠪᠰᠡᠭᠲᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠢ ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠥᠳᠠᠭ᠃[16]

ᠡᠰᠢᠯᠡᠯ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. Purchas, vol. iv, p. 1422–32, 1625. This appears to be variation of the original Spanish "Austrialia" [sic]. [1] A copy at the Library of Congress can be read online [2]
  2. Sidney J. Baker, The Australian Language, second edition, 1966.
  3. Weekend Australian, 30–31 December 2000, p. 16
  4. Gillespie, R. (2002). Dating the first Australians. Radiocarbon 44:455–72; Dating the First Australians. Ingenta. 2008-03-18 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  5. Convict Records Public Record office of Victoria; State Records Office of Western Australia
  6. Australian Bureau of Statistics 1998 Special Article - The State of New South Wales
  7. Smith, L. (1980), The Aboriginal Population of Australia, Australian National University Press, Canberra
  8. Smallpox Through History
  9. Windschuttle, K. (2001). The Fabrication of Aboriginal History, The New Criterion Vol. 20, No. 1, 20 September.
  10. Bean, C. Ed. (1941). Volume I - The Story of Anzac: the first phase, First World War Official Histories, Eleventh Edition.
  11. Australia Act text [3]
  12. Parliamentary Library (1997). The Reserve Powers of the Governor-General
  13. What happens if I do not vote?. Voting Australia - Frequently Asked Questions. Australian Electoral Commission. 2008-01-08 ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠠᠨᠳᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃
  14. Nation Master [4]
  15. Australian Department of Defence (2006).Portfolio Budget Statements 2006–07.Page 19.
  16. Khosa, Raspal (2004). Australian Defence Almanac 2004–05. Canberra: Australian Strategic Policy Institute, p. 4. 

ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠬᠣᠯᠪᠣᠭᠠᠰᠤ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

Commons
Викимедиа дуу дүрсний сан: Australia

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