ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ

ᠴᠢᠯᠦᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠨᠡᠪᠲᠡᠷᠬᠡᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ — ᠸᠢᠺᠢᠫᠧᠳᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠠᠴᠠ
ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠶᠢᠬᠤ: ᠤᠳᠤᠷᠢᠳᠬᠤ, ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠯᠲᠠ

ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ (ᠠᠩᠭᠯᠢ ᠪᠠᠷ bus) — ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠰᠡᠯ ᠦᠨ ᠨᠢᠭᠡ ᠶᠠᠩᠵᠤ᠃ «ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ» ᠨᠢ ᠣᠷᠣᠰ ᠬᠡᠯᠡ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠳᠠᠮᠵᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠳᠦ ᠣᠷᠣᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠦᠭᠡ ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠳᠤ «ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ» ᠍ ᠢ ᠶᠠ᠃ᠴᠡᠪᠡᠯᠡᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ "ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠪᠤᠷᠢ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ" (1966) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠳᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠭᠤᠳᠠᠯ ᠪᠦᠬᠦᠢ ᠪᠢᠲᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠬᠡᠮᠡᠨ ᠤᠳᠬ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠲᠠᠶᠢᠯᠵᠤ᠂ ᠴ᠃ᠳᠠᠮᠳᠢᠨᠰᠦ᠋ᠷᠦᠩᠠ᠃ᠯᠤᠪᠰᠠᠩᠳᠡᠳᠡᠪ ᠨᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠵᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ "ᠣᠷᠣᠰ-ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠣᠯᠢ" ᠍ ᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠶᠠᠳᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠡᠪᠯᠡᠯ (1982) ᠍ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ, ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠵᠥᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠠᠰᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠪᠤᠢ᠃

ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠳᠤ ᠪᠠᠨ 300 ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠬᠢᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠬᠢᠶᠠᠯᠳᠤᠯ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃[1] ᠬᠠᠮᠤᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠳᠠᠩ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠲᠤᠤᠱ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ (ᠪᠢᠳᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠡᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠲᠣᠮᠣ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ) ᠶᠤᠮ᠃ ᠡᠨᠡ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠬᠦᠮᠦᠨ ᠪᠣᠯᠤᠭᠠᠳ ᠠᠴᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠳᠬᠤ ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠲᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠠᠪᠬᠤᠷ ᠬᠥᠯᠭᠡᠲᠦ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰᠨᠤᠭᠤᠰᠤ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ ᠪᠣᠯ ᠮᠥᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠢ ᠪᠠᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠᠮᠵᠢ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠳᠤᠮᠳᠠ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰᠪᠣᠭᠣᠨᠢ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰᠬᠣᠯᠠᠴᠢ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠭᠡᠵᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ᠃ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ᠂ ᠲᠥᠷᠥᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠪᠡᠷᠢ ᠨᠢ ᠨᠢᠭᠡᠨᠲᠡ ᠣᠯᠠᠨ ᠰᠠᠯᠠᠭᠠᠯᠠᠵᠤ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ᠃

ᠣᠳᠣ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠲᠤ ᠶᠡᠬᠡᠪᠴᠢᠯᠡᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠴᠠᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠲᠠᠢ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠷᠠᠬᠢ ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠲᠡ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠤ ᠠᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ (ᠬᠣᠲᠠ ᠬᠣᠭᠣᠷᠣᠨᠳᠣ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ); ᠰᠤᠷᠭᠠᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠤᠷᠤᠭᠴᠢ᠂ ᠠᠯᠪᠠᠨ ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠵᠢᠯᠴᠢᠳ ᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠬᠦ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ; ᠠᠶᠠᠯᠠᠯ ᠵᠢᠭᠤᠯᠴᠢᠯᠠᠯ ᠤᠨ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ; ᠵᠣᠷᠢᠯᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠳᠤ ᠠᠶᠠᠨ ᠤ (ᠰᠣᠩᠭᠣᠭᠤᠯᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠴᠤ ᠶᠤᠮ ᠤᠤ) ᠭᠡᠬᠦ ᠮᠡᠲᠦ ᠪᠡᠷ ᠢᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠵᠣᠷᠴᠢᠭᠴᠢ ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠭᠡᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠥᠷᠭᠡᠨ ᠢᠶᠡᠷ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠳᠡᠭ᠃

ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠬᠦ ᠬᠦᠴᠦᠨ ᠦ ᠲᠡᠦᠬᠡ ᠶᠢ ᠡᠷᠭᠢᠨ ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠪᠠᠯ 1820 ᠍ ᠢᠤᠳ᠋ ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠮᠣᠷᠢᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ᠂ 1830 ᠍ ᠊ᠭᠠᠳ ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ᠂ 1882 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠲᠷᠣᠯᠯᠧᠢᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠬᠡᠷᠡᠭᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠳᠡᠵᠦ ᠡᠬᠢᠯᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ 1895 ᠣᠨ ᠠᠴᠠ ᠠᠩᠬᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠳᠣᠲᠣᠭᠠᠳᠤ ᠰᠢᠲᠠᠯᠲᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠥᠳᠡᠯᠭᠡᠭᠦᠷ ᠲᠤ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠪᠦᠲᠦᠭᠡᠭᠳᠡᠭᠰᠡᠨ ᠡᠴᠡ ᠬᠣᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠭᠡ ᠬᠦᠷᠲᠡᠯ᠎ᠡ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰᠤᠨ ᠤ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠨ ᠬᠡᠪ ᠮᠠᠶ᠋ᠢᠭ ᠡᠶᠢᠮᠦ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠭᠰᠠᠭᠠᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃ ᠣᠶᠢᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠢᠯ ᠤᠨᠳ ᠲᠤ ᠵᠠᠷᠢᠮ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠲᠤ ᠤᠰᠤᠨ ᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰᠤᠰᠤᠲᠥᠶᠢᠷᠦᠭᠴᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠵᠠᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰᠴᠠᠬᠢᠯᠭᠠᠨ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠵᠡᠷᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠨ᠎ᠡ ᠰᠢᠢᠳᠦᠯ ᠳᠦ ᠠᠦ᠋ᠲ᠋ᠣᠪᠦ᠋ᠰ ᠦᠢᠯᠡᠳᠪᠦᠷᠢᠯᠡᠭᠳᠡᠨ ᠲᠤᠷᠰᠢᠭᠳᠠᠵᠤ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠨ᠎ᠠ᠃

ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠯᠲᠡ[ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠪᠤᠷᠢᠯᠠᠬᠤ | ᠺᠣᠳ᠋ ᠢᠶᠠᠷ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠣ]

  1. "China's longest bus unveiled in Shanghai", Jongo.com, 15 March 2007 

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